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Published In: Musci Exotici 1: 62. 1818. (Musci Exot.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
General Reference:

Illustration & Map     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Related Objects:
Illustrations: X.-J. Li (ed.) 2000 (Pl. 4, figs. 1–11, as Grimmia affinis); T. Cao & Vitt 1986 (Figs. 1, 2, as G. affinis).

Click here for distribution map.

Map: Grimmia longirostris Hook. (Distribution in China)

Distribution     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Habitat: mostly on exposed, non-calcareous rocks and boulders at higher elevations and on cliffs on dry, open slopes or on the ground in subalpine forests; alt. 1100–4700 m.
Distribution: China, Japan, India, Nepal, New Guinea, Canary Islands, Russia, Europe, North Africa, and North, Central and South America.

Specimens Examined     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Specimens Examined:
Chinese specimens examined: Anhui: Mt. Huangshan, D.-K. Li 2258 (SHM). Guangxi: Shiwandashan (Mt.), Sept. 1935, C. M. Yang s.n. (BM). Heilongjiang: Lin-yuan Co., C. Gao 6512 (IFSBH); Ning-an Co., Da-hai-lin, C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 9146 (IFSBH); Wu-da-lian-chi City, C. Gao 13227 (IFSBH); Ta-he Co., Xin-lin, C. Gao 13118 (IFSBH). Henan: Xin-yang Co., J.-X. Luo 71 (MO); Xi-xia Co., J.-X. Luo 197 (MO). Hubei: Mt. Shennongjia, 1980 Sino-Amer. Exped. 990 (BM, FH, H). Jilin: Mt. Changbai, C. Gao 22252 (IFSBH, MO), T. Koponen 36847 (H). Qinghai: Yu-shu Co., B. C. Tan 95-156 (FH, MO). Shaanxi: Mt. Huashan, W.-M. Zhu 79098 (HKAS); Mt. Taibai, J.-X. Li 642 (MO), Z.-C. Zhu 4 (IFSBH). Shandong: Mt. Taishan, C. Gao & E.-Z. Bai 34124 (MO). Shanxi: Ning-wu Co., Mt. Guandi, Y.-H. Lin 33106 (IFSBH). Sichuan: Ba-tang Co., S. He 31304 (MO); Dao-cheng Co., S. He 31834 (MO); Hei-shui Co., Allen 7317 (MO); Lei-bo Co., Mt. Lungdschu, Handel-Mazzetti 946 (BM, E, H); Li Co., Allen 6787 (MO); Ma-er-kang Co., S. He 31078 (MO); Mao-wen Co., Allen 7353 (MO); Mar-kam Co., Redfearn et al. 35003 (MO); Mt. Daliang, Handel-Mazzetti 1493 (W); Mt. Gongga, M.-Z. Wang 8141105 (PE); Mt. Omei, C. Gao & T. Cao 18839 (IFSBH), Redfearn et al. 34610 (MO); Mu-li Co., C. Gao & T. Cao 20850 (IFSBH); Nan-ping Co., Redfearn et al. 35390 (MO); Song-pan Co., Allen 7091 (MO); Wen-chuan Co., Allen 7367 (MO); Xiang-cheng Co., S. He 31792, 31800a (MO), Z.-G. Liu 4467 (MO). Taiwan: Hua-lien Co., Koponen 18252 (ALTA, H); Ilan Co., C.-C. Chuang 1746 (UBC), C.-I. Peng 83-34 (MO); Nan-tou Co., M.-J. Lai 10443 (MO); Tai-chung Co., M.-J. Lai 6886 (MO). Xinjiang: Altai Mts., Habahe, Whittemore et al. 4749 (MO); Kanas Lake, Whittemore et al. 4733A (MO); He-jing Co., R.-L. Hu 950144 (MO, SHM); Urumqi Co., Z.-L. Liu 952096 (MO); Zhao-su Co., Xinjiang Biol. Inst. 47085 (MO). Xizang: Bo-mi Co., G.-C. Chang & J.-Y. Feng 14655 (IFSBH); Cha-yu Co., S.-G. Wu 1076 (HKAS), Z.-C. Ni 28 (MO); Chang-du Co., M. Zang 5298 (HKAS); Cuo-na Co., S.-K. 5112 (HKAS); Ji-long Co., K.-Y. Lang 1192 (PE); Jiang-zi Co., K.-Y. Lang 1102 (MO); La-sa City, S.-K. Chen 4744 (HKAS); Lang Co., M. Zang 1758 (HKAS); Lei-wu-qi Co., M. Zang 5317 (HKAS); Lin-zhi Co., K.-Y. Lang 780b (MO), 1102 (PE); Long-zi Co., M. Zang 1119 (HKAS); Mang-kang Co., M. Zang 5217 (HKAS); Mi-lin Co., K.-Y. Lang 600 (PE), 658 (MO); Nie-la-mu Co., J.-W. Zhang M. 750 (PE); Nie-rong Co., K.-Y. Zhao 85a (IFSBH); Ni-mu Co., K.-Y. Lang 321 (PE); Ya-dong Co., M. Zang 479 (HKAS), Xizang Team 7761 (MO). Yunnan: Da-li Co., Handel-Mazzetti 6486 (W), Z.-F. Fang & S.-D. Zhao 001503 (IFSBH), Redfearn et al. 1153b (MO); De-qian Co., Z.-Z. Jin 066 (HKAS); Kun-ming City, W.-X. Xu 153 (HKAS); Li-jiang Co., Q.-W. Wang 4062 (MO), W.-X. Xu 0047 (HKAS), Handel-Mazzetti 6631 (B); Lv-quan Co., W.-M. Zhu 64067 (HKAS); Qiao-jia Co., F.-G. Guo 17 (HKAS); Song-ming Co., Redfearn et al. 1814 (MO), W.-M. Zhu 64627 (HKAS); Xiao-zhong-dian, Mt. Piepun, Handel-Mazzetti 4670 (BM, E, H); Yang-bi Co., Mt. Diancangshan, Redfearn et al. 559 (MO); Zhong-dian Co., H.-F. Xie 1995a (MO). Zhejiang: Pu-tuo Isl., P.-C. Wu 1332 (MO).

Notes     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
general taxon notes:


Grimmia longirostris was commonly recognized in China as Grimmia affinis Hornsch. [Flora 2(2): 443. 1819], which is a later homonym. The legitimate Grimmia affinis Hornsch. is a synonym of Grimmia fuscolutea Hook. The nomenclature and taxonomy of Grimmia longirostris were discussed in detail by Muñoz (1998a).
Grimmia longirostris is characterized by having keeled, lanceolate, hair-pointed leaves with margins recurved on one side below. Other features include: 1) the hyaline basal cells near the margins (at least on one side) are rectangular, with straight, thick transverse walls; 2) the juxtacostal cells are elongate and sinuose; 3) the setae are straight and the capsules are exserted, oblong-ovoid to cylindric; 4) the annuli are well developed; 5) the calyptrae are mitrate; and 6) the sexual condition is cladautoicous. Sometimes, the specimens of this species have been misnamed as G. ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb. or G. commutata Hüb. (nom. illeg.) in China as well as in the other parts of the world due to nomenclatural and taxonomic misunderstandings. According to Sayre (1951) and our observations, G. longirostris and G. ovalis are distinguishable. Grimmia ovalis has unkeeled and channeled leaves, with margins plane or incurved, cucullate calyptrae, and a dioicous sexual condition.
Grimmia longirostris in China shows a rather wide range of variation, especially in sporophytes. The following features are especially noteworthy: 1) The length of setae ranges from 2.0 to 4.5(–5.0) mm long, resulting in the capsules subimmersed when the setae are less than 2.5 mm long and exserted when the setae are more than 3.5 mm long. 2) The capsules show great variation in shape with their length varying from 1.5 to 2.8 mm and their width from 0.6 to 1.0 mm. Specimens with shorter setae (mostly from northern China) usually have ovoid capsules, while those with longer setae (mostly from southern and southwestern China) often have cylindrical capsules. 3) The beaks of opercula vary in relation to the capsule shape. The ovoid capsules usually have short, obtuse beaks, while the cylindrical capsules often have long, straight or slightly oblique beaks. 4) The lengths of hyaline hair-points of leaves are also variable. Usually, the leaves, especially the upper ones, have long hair-points, up to 1/3–1/4 the laminal length, but sometimes have rather short awns, only to 1/10 the laminal length. Geographically, the specimens with shortly awned leaves are scattered throughout the entire range of the species in China.


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12. Grimmia longirostris Hook. 近缘紫萼藓 jin-yan zi-e xian
Musci Exot. 1: 62. 1818. Type. Ecuador: Chimborazo, Mt. Chimborazo, Humboldt 76.
Grimmia affinis Hornsch. Flora 2: 443. 1819, nom. illeg., non Grimmia affinis Hornsch., Flora 2(1): 85. 1819. Dryptodon ovatus var. affine (Hornsch.) Hartm., Handb. Skand. Fl. (ed. 3): 271. 1838. Grimmia ovata var. affinis (Hornsch.) Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G., Bryol. Eur. 3: 123. 1845. Grimmia ovalis var. affinis (Hornsch.) Broth., Acta Soc. Sci. Fenn. 19: 86. 1892. Grimmia ovalis fo. affinis (Hornsch.) Mönk., Laubm. Eur. 360. 1927. Type. Austria: Windischmattreyer Tauern (No. 135) (lectotype B, designated by Deguchi 1978).
Grimmia dimorphula C. Müll., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. ser., 3: 108. 1896. Type. China: Shaanxi (Schen-si), in saxis cacuminis montis Iu-ki-po (Hu Co.), 27 June 1894, J. Giraldi 877 (lectotype H, designated by T. Cao & Vitt 1986; isolectotypes BM, S). Synonymized with G. ovalis by T. Cao & Vitt (1986), with G. khasiana by Deguchi 1980.
Grimmia khasiana Mitt., J. Proc. Linn. Soc., Bot., Suppl. 1: 45. 1859. Synonymized by J. Muñoz 2000b.
Grimmia longipes Broth., Kryptogame exsiccatae editae a Museo Palatino Vindobonensi, n° 2980, 1926, nom. nud. in sched. Original specimen. China: Yunnan, Li-jiang (Lidjiang), Handel-Mazzetti s.n. (H, MO).
Plants up to 3 cm high, in dense tufts, green to yellowish green above, brown to dark brownish below, rarely blackish throughout. Stems moderately branched, with well developed central strand in cross section. Leaves imbricate, erect when dry, spreading when moist, 2.1–3.6 mm long, lanceolate from an ovate base, keeled above, ending with more or less long, faintly toothed hyaline hair-points; margins narrowly revolute on one side below; costa single, percurrent, consisting of nearly uniform cells in cross section; upper leaf cells bistratose, 2–3-stratose at margins, irregularly rounded-quadrate, 7–9 µm wide, with thick and slightly sinuose walls; basal juxtacostal cells elongate-rectangular, 34–58 µm × 7–9 µm, with sinuose walls; cells near margins rectangular, hyaline, 23–46 µm × 8–12 µm, with straight transverse walls thicker than longitudinal ones. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves larger than upper stem leaves, with elongate hyaline hair-points; the perigonia often on separate branches. Setae erect, yellow to yellowish brown, variable in length, from 2.0 mm to 5.0 mm long, twisted when dry; capsules exserted, yellowish brown to brown, variable in shape and length, oblong-ovoid to cylindrical, 1.5–2.5 mm × 0.6–1.0 mm (length:width, ca. 2–4:1), more or less narrowed at mouth; exothecial cells rounded hexagonal to elongate-hexagonal, with thin walls; stomata numerous, present near the base of urn; annuli consisting of well developed elongate cells with very thick walls; opercula suddenly contracted to more or less long, straight or slightly oblique beaks; peristome teeth single, erect, lanceolate, yellowish brown to reddish brown, imperfectly cleft in 2–3 branches and perforate above; outer surface densely papillose above, sparsely papillose or nearly smooth below; inner surface papillose throughout. Calyptrae mitrate, lobed at base. Spores 9–12 µm in diameter, yellowish, more or less granulose.


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