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Published In: Prodrome des Cinquième et Sixième Familles de l'Aethéogamie 58. 1805. (Prodr. Aethéogam.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
General Reference:

Illustration & Map     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Related Objects:
Illustrations: X.-J. Li (ed.) 2000 (Pl. 4, figs. 12–19); T. Cao & Vitt 1986 (Figs. 5, 6).

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Map: Grimmia pilifera P. Beauv. (Distribution in China)

Distribution     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Habitat: on exposed, sunny, granitic rocks or on shaded rocks under trees in woodland; alt. 350–3500 m.
Distribution: China, Korea, Japan, India, Russia, and North America.

Specimens Examined     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Specimens Examined:
Chinese specimens examined: Anhui: Mt. Huangshan, D.-K. Li 02246 (SHM), C. Gao 32012 (IFSBH); Xiu-ning Co., X.-H. Guo 810309 (MO). Beijing: Tian-tan (Temple), D.-K. Li 06514 (SHM). Fujian: Chong-an Co., C. Gao 07428 (IFSBH); Mt. Wuyi, D.-K. Li 01774 (SHM); Xia-men City, Amoy Island, Herklots B. 8A (BM). Hebei: Bei-dai-he City, Y.-B. Li 56432 (PE); Mt. Wuling, J.-X. Ji C.38 (IFSBH); Xing-long Co., K.-J. Guan 21-a (MO, PE). Heilongjiang: Ning-an Co., Da-hai-lin, C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 001376 (IFSBH), Jing-po-hu, C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 9085 (IFSBH); Ning-an Co., X.-L. Zhu 256 (MO); Shang-zhi Co., G.-Y. Wu 1567 (IFSBH); Ta-he Co., Xin-lin, C. Gao 13090 (IFSBH); Tang-yuan Co., Y.-L. Zhang 1440 (IFSBH); Wu-da-lian-chi City, C. Gao 13228 (IFSBH); Wu-ying Co., P.-C. Chen & C. Gao 487 (IFSBH); Xiao Xing An Ling (Lesser Khingan Mt.), Dai-ling, P.-C. Chen & C. Gao 212 (IFSBH). Henan: Lu-shi Co., H.-J. Yu 5246 (MO); Nei-xiang Co., J.-X. Luo 153 (MO); Song Co., J.-X. Luo 379 (MO); Tong-bai Co., J.-H. Li 0218 (MO); Xin-yang Co., J.-X. Luo 8 (MO); Xi-xia Co., J.-X. Luo 327 (MO). Hunan: Chang-sha City, C. Gao 20 (IFSBH); Liu-yang Co., C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 344 (IFSBH). Jiangsu: Jiang-ning Co., Z.-L. Wan 63-3 (SHM); Nan-jing City, P.-C. Chen 67 (IFSBH); Wu Co., D.-K. Li 06880 (SHM); Wu-xi City, P.-C. Chen 700 (IFSBH). Jiangxi: Mt. Lushan, D.-K. Li 017443 (SHM). Jilin: Ji-an Co., C. Gao 7793 (IFSBH); Jiao-he Co., X.-G. Kang 1940 (IFSBH); Jiu-tai Co., Tu-men-ling, C. Gao 1758 (IFSBH); La-fa Co., C. Gao 1376 (IFSBH); Lao-ye-ling, C. Gao 1757 (IFSBH); Lin-jiang Co., C. Gao 7714 (IFSBH); Mt. Changbai, C. Gao 1186 (IFSBH), Koponen 36621 (H); Wang-qing Co., C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 8762 (IFSBH); Wu-song Co., P.-Y. Fu 706 (IFSBH). Liaoning: Ben-xi Co., C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 840 (IFSBH); Mt. Qianshan, C. Gao 1894 (IFSBH). Nei Mongol: Gen-he City, Man-ui, C. Gao & G.-C.Zhang 12883 (IFSBH). Shanghai: Jin-shan Co., D.-K. Li 07599 (SHM). Shaanxi: Hu Co., Si-Ku-trui-san, J. Giraldi 878 (BM, H, S); Mt. Huashan, D.-K. Li 015178 (SHM); Ning-shan Co., P.-C. Chen 216 (MO); Tai-bai Co., X.-J. Li 411 (MO). Shandong: Ji-nan City, Faurie 19 (BM); Qing-dao City, J.-X. Ji 2 (IFSBH). Sichuan: Kong-ding Co., Z.-F. Fang & S.-D. Zhao 001436 (IFSBH); Mu-li Co., C. Gao & T. Cao 21005 (IFSBH); Nan-ping Co., S. He 30204 (MO); Yuan-yan Co., Handel-Mazzetti 1866 (BM, H), 2121 (H). Xizang: Cha-yu Co., G.-C. Zhang & J.-Y. Feng 14804 (IFSBH); Lin-zhi Co., Z.-X. Tan 5 (IFSBH); Mi-lin Co., K.-Y. Lang 3200 (PE); Ya-dong Co., Xizang Exped. Team 7776 (PE). Yunnan: Li-jiang Co., W.-X. Xu 0041 (HKAS); Schi-lung-ba, Handel-Mazzetti 201 (H). Zhejiang: Cheng-si Co., D.-K. Li 04028 (SHM); De-qing Co., P.-C. Wu 1286 (MO); Mt. Jiulong, Z.-L. Liu 03611 (SHM); Mt. Putuo, D.-K. Li 05723 (SHM); Mt. Xitianmu, D.-K. Li 03788 (SHM), R.-L. Hu 68 (MO); Mt. Yandang, D.-K. Li 08223 (SHM); Ping-hu Co., D.-K. Li 03448 (SHM); Zuo-pu Co., D.-K. Li 16154 (SHM).

Notes     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
general taxon notes:
Grimmia pilifera is characterized by several diagnostic features: 1) capsules on short, straight setae and immersed in large perichaetial leaves; 2) opercula falling detached from the columella; 3) leaves tapered from somewhat sheathing, ovate bases to narrowly lanceolate apex, often with a distinct shoulder; and 4) basal juxtacostal cells elongate rectangular and sinuose, becoming short-rectangular or subquadrate near the margins. The immersed capsules and sinuose basal leaf cells make G. pilifera easily distinguished from other species. When sterile, plants of G. pilifera are somewhat similar to G. elatior, but the two species differ in numerous features: 1) the upper leaf cells of G. pilifera are smooth, while those of G. elatior are irregularly papillose; 2) the basal cells near the margins of G. pilifera are subquadrate or nearly so, while those of G. elatior are elongate to rectangular; and 3) the stems of G. pilifera do not have a developed central strand in transverse section, while those of G. elatior do.
Grimmia pilifera shows some variation in leaf shape, the extent of leaf keels, and the shape of basal leaf cells. Some specimens have a relatively narrowly ovate leaf base and long-lanceolate upper part, while others have a more broadly ovate leaf base and shortly lanceolate upper part. Plants from the northeastern China and Xizang have distinctly keeled leaves, while those from the eastern coast have slightly keeled leaves. Usually, the basal marginal leaf cells are distinctly subquadrate, but sometimes are short-rectangular to rectangular (specimens from Xizang).


Deguchi (1978) considered G. tenax C. Müll. and G. elatior var. squarrifolia Dix. as synonyms of G. pilifera. After examining the types of these two taxa, they appear to be identical to G. pilifera gametophytically; however, sporophytes are not available for comparison. Grimmia kirienens was described as an autoicous species by C. Gao (1977). Our examination of the type and other specimens named under this species seems to show a dioicous sexual condition, because we never found the archegonia and antheridia on the same plants.
Grimmia pilifera is one of the most common species of Grimmia in China. It is widely distributed along the eastern coast as well as in northeastern and southwestern China. This is a disjunct species between eastern Asia and North America. It was originally described from and is widely distributed in North America. In eastern Asia this species has a distribution range from China, Japan, Korea, India, and the Russian Far East (near the Ussuri River).


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18. Grimmia pilifera P. de Beauv.   毛尖紫萼藓   mao-jian zi-e xian
Prodr. Aethéogam. 58. 1805. Type. U.S.A. Near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, Muhlenberg s.n.
Grimmia atroviridis Card., Bull. Herb. Boissier, ser. 2, 8: 333. 1908.
Grimmia elatior var. squarrifolia Dix. & Thér. in Dix., Hong Kong Naturalist, Suppl. 2: 10. 1933. Type. China: Amoy I., exposed granite rock, alt. 400–500 ft., 8th July, 1931, G.A.C. Herklots 8A (holotype BM); G.A.C. Herklots B15B, B16B (paratypes BM).
Grimmia kirienensis C. Gao, Fl. Musc. Chin. Boreali-Orient. 379. 1977. Type. China: Jilin (Kirin), Distr. Linkiang Mt. Maoehrshan, 800 m, C. Gao 7714 (holotype IFSBH); Heilongjiang (Heilungkiang), Xiao-ching-an-ling, Yichun City, Y.-L. Chang 1140 (paratype IFSBH).
Grimmia tenax C. Müll., Nuovo Giorn. Bot. Ital., n. ser., 3: 109. 1896. Type. China: Shaanxi (Schen-si), in medio monte Si-Ku-tzui-san, Jul. 1849, J. Giraldi 878 (lectotype FI, designated by Deguchi 1978, not seen; isolectotypes BM, H).
Plants robust, up to 3–4(–5) cm high, yellowish green to green above, dark green to blackish below, rarely reddish brown, in loose and coarse tufts. Stems erect, rigid, moderately branched, without a well developed central strand in cross section. Leaves erect, loosely imbricate when dry, erect-spreading to widely spreading when moist, keeled above, 2.6–3.8 mm long, lanceolate from an ovate, somewhat sheathing base, the base suddenly narrowed, often forming a distinct shoulder, ending in a long, denticulate, hyaline hair-point (0.2–0.8 mm long), sometimes yellowish to yellowish brown, the lower leaves small, muticous; margins entire, recurved on both sides, occasionally only on one side in lower half of leaf, bistratose in upper half; costa prominent, ending near the leaf apex, in cross section consisting of more or less uniform cells and small abaxial cells; upper cells irregularly quadrate, obscure, 5–8 µm wide, bistratose with incrassate and sinuose walls; median cells quadrate to shortly rectangular, 7–15 µm × 7–9 µm, sinuose; basal marginal cells at the extreme angle rectangular, 7–15 µm × 8–10 µm, thin-walled, somewhat hyaline, other basal cells nearly quadrate, incrassate and sinuose, more or less with thick transverse walls; basal juxtacostal cells 35–59 µm × 5–7 µm, with thick, sinuose walls. Dioicous. Perichaetial leaves much larger than stem leaves, with long awns. Setae yellowish green, straight, 0.6–1.0 mm long, shorter than urns; capsules erect, immersed, 1.7–2.0 mm long, oblong-ovoid, smooth; exothecial cells quadrate to rounded-hexagonal, with thin, smooth walls; stomata present at base of urn; annuli well differentiated, composed of 2–3 rows of thick-walled cells; opercula with a long, straight or slightly oblique beak; peristome teeth lanceolate, reddish brown, imperfectly divided into 2–3 branches in upper part, perforate in the middle; outer surface densely papillose above, sparsely papillose below; inner surface papillose throughout. Calyptrae mitrate, 5–6-lobed at base. Spores ca. 9 µm in diameter, yellowish green, more or less granulose.


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