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Published In: Beihefte zum Botanischen Centralblatt. Zweite Abteilung, Systematik, Pflanzengeographie, angewandte Botanik 28(2): 207. 1911. (Beih. Bot. Centralbl., Abt. 2) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
General Reference:

Illustration & Map     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Related Objects:
Illustrations: X.-J. Li (ed.) 2000 (Pl. 16, figs. 1–10); T. Cao & Vitt 1986 (Figs. 59, 60).
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Map: Schistidium rivulare (Brid.) Podp. (Distribution in China)

Distribution     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Habitat: on boulders or rocks in or beside streams and rivers in mountain areas.
Distribution: China, Japan, Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand.

Specimens Examined     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
Specimens Examined:
Chinese specimens examined: Heilongjiang: Ning-an Co., Da-hai-lin, C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 9169 (IFSBH), Jing-po-hu, C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 9103 (IFSBH); Yu-chun City, Wu-ying, C. Gao 424 (IFSBH). Hebei: Mt. Wuling, J.-X. Ji C5 (IFSBH). Henan: Xin-yang Co., J.-X. Luo 0034 (MO, PE). Jilin: An-tu Co., Da-fang-gou, S.-E. Liu 5310 (IFSBH); Jiao-he Co., Lao-ye-ling, C. Gao 1540 (IFSBH); Mt. Changbai, C. Gao 22256 (IFSBH, MO). Liaoning: Ben-xi Co., C. Gao & G.-C. Zhang 8404 (IFSBH). Qinghai: Nang-qian Co., B.C. Tan 95-149 (FH, MO); Yu-shu Co., B.C. Tan 95-145 (FH, MO). Shaanxi: Mt. Huashan, C. Gao & T. Cao 16809 (IFSBH); Mt Nanwutai, C. Gao & T. Cao 16610 (IFSBH). Taiwan: Nan-tou Co., Shevock 17940 (CAS, MO). Xinjiang: Bu-er-jin Co., Q.-R. Jiang 368 (MO). Zhejiang: Mt. Jiulong, R.-L. Hong 714 (SHM).

Notes     (Last Modified On 3/16/2009)
general taxon notes:
Schistidium rivulare has dark brown to blackish plants with muticous, ovate to ovate-lanceolate leaves. The costa is stout and tightly attached to stems and often persistent on the basal part of stems after laminal cells are eroded by water. The immersed capsules are nearly spherical and wide-mouthed. The spores are large, 15–19 µm in diameter, and smooth.
Schistidium rivulare is an aquatic or emergent species, which is often found on rocks in or near water in streams, waterfalls, or rivers. Schistidium rivulare is closely related to S. apocarpum, but the latter differs by having hair-pointed leaves, narrower capsules, and smaller spores. Variation in S. rivulare is apparent in plant size and color as well as leaf-tips. Typical plants of S. rivulare are robust, somewhat stout, dark brown to blackish, but some Chinese plants are slender, yellowish green, and relatively light in color. Sometimes, the muticous leaves, one of the distinct characters of S. rivulare, become very shortly hair-pointed from the upper parts of the stems. Such examples are also found in some North American collections.
In China, Schistidium rivulare has erroneously been treated as Grimmia alpicola or S. alpicola in numerous floras [X.-L. Bai 1987; P.-C. Chen et al. 1963; C. Gao et al. 1977; X.-J. Li (ed.) 1985]. Deguchi (1979) and Bremer (1980c) clarified the problem concerning typification of G. alpicola. The type specimen of G. alpicola is identical to that of S. agassizii (Sull. & Lesq. ex Sull.) Jaeg. & Sauerb. The differences between S. rivulare and S. alpicola (= S. agassizii) were well illustrated by Deguchi (1978).


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4. Schistidium rivulare (Brid.) Podp.   溪岸连轴藓   xi-an lian-zhou xian
Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 28(2): 207. 1911. Schistidium alpicola (Hedw.) Limpr. var. rivulare (Brid.) Limpr., Laubm. Deutschl. 1: 708. 1889. Schistidium apocarpum (Hedw.) var. rivulare (Brid.) Bruch & Schimp. in B.S.G., Bryol. Eur. 3: 100. tab. 234 (fasc. 25–28). 1845. Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. var. rivularis (Brid.) Nees, Hornsch. & Stürm, Bryol. Germ. 2(l): 101. 1827. Grimmia alpicola Hedw. var. rivularis (Brid.) Wahlenb., Fl. Lapp. 32. 1812. Grimmia rivularis Brid., J. Bot. (Schrader). 1800(l): 276. 1801. Type. Germany: “Ad Thuringici saltus rivulos frigidos, ex gr. prope Klein Schmalkalden, E. Germany” (holotype B-Bridel).
Plants medium-sized to robust, up to 6 cm high, green to yellowish green above, dark brown to blackish below, in loose, large tufts. Stems frequently branched, with a well developed central strand in cross section. Leaves erect, imbricate when dry, spreading when moist, 1.6–2.8 mm long, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, often secund and asymmetric, muticous, rarely very shortly hyaline-pointed at apex, slightly concave, somewhat keeled; margins entire, sometimes irregularly serrulate above, recurved on both sides, bistratose above; costa prominent, convex on abaxial surface, ending below apex, dorsally smooth, with nearly homogeneous cells in cross section; upper cells unistratose or in places bistratose, subquadrate to subrounded, 7–9 µm wide, thick-walled; basal marginal cells quadrate to subquadrate, 7–12 µm wide; basal juxtacostal cells elongate, 12–15 µm × 7–9 µm. Autoicous. Perichaetial leaves larger and broader than stem leaves, 2.4–3.0 mm long. Setae shorter than capsules, ca. 0.5 mm long, straight; capsules immersed, dark brown, semiglobose, erect, symmetric, wide-mouthed, ca. 1.0 mm long; exothecial cells rounded-quadrate to rectangular with thick walls; stomata present at base of urns; annuli absent; opercula obliquely beaked; peristome teeth lanceolate, reddish brown, perforate above, outer surface densely papillose above, sparsely papillose below, inner surface papillose thoughout. Calyptrae cucullate. Spores 15–19 µm in diameter, smooth.


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