(Last Modified On 2/22/2011)
(Last Modified On 2/22/2011)
Bryum pseudotriquetrum has
distinctly decurrent leaves, strongly revolute, often dark‑red margins,
short, firm‑walled leaf cells and a percurrent to short‑excurrent
costa. Its stems are commonly bright red and its basal leaf cells are enlarged,
sometimes bulging and often reddish brown. Some Central American collections (Sharp
5471, F, MO, NY; Steyermark & Vatter 49998, F, MO) have
yellowish stems and are unusually robust (leaves to 5 mm long), but otherwise
are structurally identical to B. pseudotriquetrum. Bartram called these
collections B. manginii, a synonym of Bryum procerum, while Ochi
annotated the collections as “A distinct species.” There are, however, Central
American collections (e.g., Steyermark 35971, F) with leaves
intermediate in size between these robust specimens and typical B.
Bruch and Schimper
(1839, Pls. 363–364); Dixon and Jameson (1896, Pl. 44 D); Grout (1906, Pl. 47);
Brotherus (1923, Fig. 51 A–B); Bartram (1949, Fig. 77 G–J); Nyholm (1958, Fig.
132 A); Ochi (1959, Fig. 25); Abramova et al. (1961, Pl. 173); Breen
(1963, Pl. 63 7–9); Ochi (1970, Figs 26–28); Lawton (1971, Pl. 94 7–13); Ochi
(1972, Figs. 60–61); Flowers (1973, Pl. 79 1–6); Gangulee (1974, Fig. 480);
Smith (1978, Fig. 195 1–3); Catcheside (1980, Fig. 150); Crum and Anderson
(1981, Figs. 258 & 259 A–G); Ireland (1982, Pl. 178); Orbán and Vajda
(1983, Figs. 362–363); Reese (1983, Fig. 36 K–L); Li (1985, Pl. 79 20–24);
Magill (1987, Fig. 207 8–14); Noguchi (1988, Fig. 208 A); Nyholm (1993, Fig.
164); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 359); Allen (1995, Fig. 10); Jóhannsson
(1995, Fig. 87). Figure 151.
On soil in alpine meadows
and on travertine limestone or non‑calcareous rocks and boulders; 2200‑3500
Distribution in Central America:
GUATEMALA. Huehuetenango: Vogel B‑9017 (NY); San Marcos: Steyermark
Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North‑Central, Northeastern,
Southwestern, South‑Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America;
Caribbean, Western, Northern, and Southern South America, Brazil; Subantarctic
Islands, Antarctic Continent; Northern, Middle, East, Southwestern, and
Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Middle Asia, Mongolia, China,
Eastern Asia, Caucasus, Western Asia; Macaronesia, Northern Africa, Northeast,
West-Central, East, and South Tropical Africa, Southern Africa,; Indian
Subcontinent, Indo‑China; Australia, New Zealand.
Bryum pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) Gaertn., Meyer & Scherb., Oekon. Fl. Wetterau 3(2): 102. 1802.
Mnium pseudotriquetrum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 190. 1801. Protologue: Locis apricis udis paludosis Europae.
Mnium bimum Brid., Muscol. Recent. 3: 93. 1803. Bryum bimum (Brid.) Turn., Musc. Hib. 127. 1804. Protologue: In alueis torrentium montanorum Angliae, paludosis Alpinis Scandinauiae et Heluetiae, pratis paludosis turfosis Saxoniae, Thuringiae, prope Francofurtum ad Moenum, circa Grünau in Werthemiensi ditione, itemque in Megapolitano Ducatu habitat.
Plants medium- to large-sized, shiny, green to yellowish green, evenly foliate, in tufts 10–60 mm high, sparsely or densely tomentose; rhizoids brownish red, papillose. Leaves 2–5 mm long, evenly spaced, erect‑spreading to spreading, twisted and contorted when dry, erect‑spreading when wet, oblong‑lanceolate to ovate‑lanceolate, decurrent; apices acute to gradually acuminate; margins tightly revolute to near the apex, bordered by 2–3 rows of narrow, thick‑walled, often red, linear cells, serrulate or crenulate near apex, teeth single; costae shortly excurrent; upper cells hexagonal to rhomboidal‑hexagonal, firm‑walled, sometimes porose, 30–70 μm long, basal cells broadly rectangular, firm‑walled, sometimes porose, 50–100 μm long. Dioicous or synoicous. Sporophytes not known from Central America. Setae 20–40 mm long, reddish, becoming brown with age. Capsules 2.5–4 mm long, cylindrical to clavate, horizontal, inclined or pendent; opercula conic‑apiculate, 0.5–0.8 mm long; exostome brownish yellow to pale‑yellow, papillose, endostome yellowish hyaline, basal membrane to ½ of exostome teeth length, segments long, broadly perforate, lightly papillose, cilia 2–3, appendiculate. Spores 12–20 μm, lightly papillose (Allen 1995).