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Published In: Edinburgh Journal of Science 2: 225–226, pl. 5 [upper left]. 1825. (Edinburgh J. Sci.) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/24/2014)
Acceptance : Accepted
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Hookeria acutifolia is a beautiful, large species that can be immediately recognized in the field by its pale green color, complanate-foliate stems, large, soft leaves, and exceptionally big, lax leaf cells. Indeed the cells are so large that, as noted by Crum and Anderson (1981) and Buck (1998), they can easily be seen with a hand lens. The stems have a small cluster of rhizoidal initials positioned abaxially to the leaf insertions and papillose-roughened rhizoids. Unlike most other members of the Hookeriaceae, the stems have central strands that vary from rudimentary to weakly but distinctly pres-ent. Nearly all collections have numerous leaves with odd rhizoid-like propagula at the apices and scattered near the leaf margins. When young these structures are short, have straight cross-walls, and seem clearly to be propagula. However, as they age they become elongate, have somewhat oblique walls, and look more rhizoid-like. Although the leaves are typically acute, those with apical propag-ula are commonly broadly rounded. Distinctive microscopic features of the leaves include the absence of a costa; regularly elongate-hexagonal to rhomboidal, very wide, smooth cells; and marginal cells that are usually longer and broader than the interior cells, forming an obscure border. The exostome teeth of H. acutifolia are densely cross-striate on the lower dorsal surface, with no hint of median fur-rows. The endostome is typical for the Hookeriaceae: high basal membranes, stout, strongly keeled, weakly perforate segments, and no cilia.

Illustrations: Hooker and Greville (1825, Pl. 5); Schwägrichen (1826, Pl. 163 1); Britton (1894, Pl. 80, as Hookeria sullivantii); Fleischer (1908, Fig. 172); Bartram (1933a, Fig. 143); Grout (1934, Pl. 58 B); Bartram (1949, Fig. 133 A–C); Jennings (1951, Pl. 67); Welch (1962, Figs. 8–15); Lawton (1971, Pl. 134 15–18, Pl. 135 1–5); Gangulee (1977, Fig. 747); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 394); Noguchi (1991, Fig. 331); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 582); Churchill and Linares (1995, Fig. 102 a–d); Lin and Tan (1995, Fig. 36); Duarte Bello (1997, Pl. 243); Buck (1998, Pl. 5 1–4); Gradstein et al. (2001, Fig. 134 L–P). Figure 177.
Habitat: On soil, sand, or rocks along stream or trail banks, occasionally on wet logs and tree bases near streams or in very wet forests, also at base of vertical rock faces; 1500–3130 m.
Distribution in Central America:

BELIZE. Cayo: Allen 15137 (MO). GUATEMALA. Quetzalte-nango: Standley 65338 (F, FH); Quiché: Sharp 2513 (FH); San Marcos: Steyermark 36400 (F, FH, US). EL SALVADOR. Santa Ana: Davidse et al. 37207 (MO). HONDURAS. Comayagua: Allen 13965 (MO); Cors: Allen 14091 (MO); Lempira: Allen 11479 (MO). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Crosby 9974 (MO); Cartago: Dauphin & Ramírez 2061 (MO); Heredia: Crosby & Crosby 6048 (FH, MO); Puntarenas: Lyon 454 (MO); San José: Crosby & Crosby 5773 (MO).

World Range: Western Canada; Northeastern, Southeastern, North-Central, and Northwestern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean; Western and Northern South America, Brazil; Cauca-sus, China, Eastern Asia; Indian Subcontinent, Indo-China, Malesia; North-Central Pacific.


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Plants medium-sized to robust, 3–8 cm long, pale green or yellowish green, lustrous, in thin mats. Stems prostrate, simple or sparsely and irregularly branched, hyaline to yellowish when young, be-coming reddish with age, complanate-foliate; stems in cross section with epidermis and cortical cells enlarged, thin-walled, central strand rudimentary to weakly developed; paraphyllia absent; pseudopa-raphyllia foliose; axillary hairs fugacious, 2–3 cells long, basal cell quadrate, hyaline, median cell (when present) subrectangular, hyaline, upper cell oblong, reddish brown; rhizoids from initials ab-axial to the leaf insertions, reddish brown, papillose-roughened, not or sparsely and irregularly branched. Leaves not or slightly contorted when dry. Lateral leaves flattened, wide-spreading when wet, slightly asymmetric, ovate to oblong-ovate, 3–6 mm long, gradually acute to bluntly acute, sometimes rounded; margins entire, plane, not or obscurely bordered by a single row of somewhat elongate and broader cells; costa absent, or leaves with bistratose region at the very base; cells smooth, elongate-hexagonal to rhomboidal, 102–205 # 41–62 µm, laxly bulging; alar cells undif-ferentiated. Dorsal leaves erect, symmetric; margins plane. Asexual reproduction by reddish brown, papillose-roughened, rhizoid-like propagula, usually with straight cross-walls originating from ne-matogen cells at leaf apices and along or near leaf margins. Autoicous. Perigonia and perichaetia sessile along stems and branches. Setae elongate, 8–20 mm long, reddish to orange, smooth, flexu-ose. Capsules inclined to pendent, ovoid to short-cylindric, neck moderately developed, 1–2 mm long; exothecial cells at mouth reddish, quadrate to shortly oblate in 5–8 rows, short-rectangular below, collenchymatous; stomata on neck; opercula conic to conic-rostrate, 0.7–1.0 mm long; annuli rudimentary, deciduous; peristome diplolepideous; exostome teeth narrowly triangular, dark red, not furrowed, densely and closely cross-striate below, coarsely papillose above, median line and trabec-ulae weakly developed, ventral surface smooth, trabeculae well developed and projecting; endostome as long as the exostome, yellowish white, lightly papillose throughout, basal membranes high, seg-ments broad, strongly keeled, faintly perforate, cilia absent. Spores rounded, 12–16 µm, faintly pa-pillose. Calyptrae mitrate, yellowish white, irregularly lobed at base, naked, fleshy, 3–5 cells thick, inner 2 layers small, thick-walled, reddish, outer 3 layers enlarged, thin-walled, hyaline, 1.5–2.0 mm long.



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