3. Hylocomiastrum umbratum (Hedw.) Fleisch. in Broth. 仰叶星塔藓 yang ye xing ta xian
Nat. Pflanzenfam. (ed. 2), 11: 487. 1925. Hylocomium umbratum (Hedw.) Schimp. in B.S.G., Bryol. Eur. 5: 175 (fasc. 49–51 Mon. 6). 1852. Hypnum umbratum Ehrh. ex Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 263. 1801. Type: Europe.
Plants slender, dark green to brownish green, slightly glossy. Main stems up to 10 cm long, densely pinnately branched above, loosely pinnately branched below; branches ca. 1.5 cm long, attenuate at apex, twisted when dry, arcuate when moist; pseudoparaphyllia lanceolate. Stem leaves triangularly lanceolate, with a piliform or shortly acuminate apex, ca. 1.8 mm × 1.2 mm, deeply plicate at base; margins somewhat reflexed at the middle, serrulate or nearly entire; costae double, often reaching the middle part of lamina; branch leaves broadly ovate, acute, ca. 1.0 mm × 0.7 mm, deeply plicate; margins serrate; costae long and strong; median cells of stem leaves linear, 40–65 µm × 4–5 µm, thin-walled, not clearly pitted; basal cells nearly linear or rectangular, walls yellowish brown, not clearly pitted; alar cells similar to basal cells, but slightly larger. Inner perichaetial leaves lanceolate, up to 1.7 mm long, entire, ecostate; paraphyllia few. Setae elongate, up to 4.0 cm long, thick, twisted when dry, curved when moist; capsules inclined, ovoid, ca. 2.5 mm × 1.5 mm; opercula conic, with an apiculate tip, ca. 1 mm long; exostome teeth ca. 0.75 mm long, yellowish brown below; endostome segments as long as the teeth. Spores 12–16 µm in diameter.