(Last Modified On 2/15/2011)
(Last Modified On 2/15/2011)
In Central America H. involuta
is especially common on rocks and boulders in or along streams or creeks. All
Central American collections of the species that grew on bark were found to be
misidentified, mostly as Calymperaceae species. Although throughout its range H.
involuta is extremely variable in size, in Central America it is usually a
medium-sized plant. Dry plants of H. involuta usually have distinctly
erect-incurved leaves with strongly involute margins, however plants from very
moist or wet places often had spreading leaves. The leaves of H. involuta
are spathulate, have two well-formed stereid bands in the costa, and leaf cells
that are bulging-mammillose on the ventral surface but plane on the dorsal.
Other diagnostic features of the species include its eperistomate, cylindric
capsules, twisted-cucullate calyptrae, and the common presence of stellate to
dentate-ellipsoidal propagula on branched, axillary stalks. The upper leaf
margins in H. involuta vary from dentate to smooth and at times both
margin types can be found on leaves from a single collection.
Plaubelia sprengelii can be
confused with H. involuta since both species have similar leaf shapes
and bulging-mammillose cells on the ventral surface. Most plants of P.
sprengelii differ from H. involuta in their smaller size and
strongly rosulate habit. Unfortunately, the two species sometimes overlap in
plant size and P. sprengelii at times has a non-rosulate habit. Plaubelia
sprengelii also differs from H. involuta in having greatly enlarged
and bulging epidermal cells on the ventral surface of the costa, a reduced
peristome, and usually a single (dorsal) stereid band in the costa. The
enlarged, bulging epidermal cells on the ventral costal surface of P.
sprengelii are a distinctive feature of the species that can be seen in
whole leaf mounts.
might be confused with H. involuta since it has a similar plant-aspect
when dry, and oblong to spathulate leaves with smooth, ventrally bulging leaf
cells. It differs from H. involuta in having acute leaves, usually
stoutly excurrent costae, and a well-developed peristome.
Hooker (1820, Pl.
154); Schwaegrichen (1826, Pl. 175); Bartram (1949, Fig. 51 E–G); Noguchi (1988,
Fig. 120 B); Norris and Koponen (1989, Fig. 9 a–e); Zander (1993, Pl. 54 1–11);
Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 200). Figure 36.
On soil over riverside
boulders, in seepage on vertical rock faces, on stones and boulders (often
limestone) in streams, and on cement block walls; 10–1737 m.
Distribution in Central America:
BELIZE. Cayo: Allen 18258 (BRH, MO); Toledo: Allen 18796 (BRH,
MO). GUATEMALA. Alta Verapaz: Croat 41544 (MO); Baja Verapaz: Sharp
2658 (MO); Chimaltenango: Standley 64514 (F); Chiquimula: Standley
74288 (F); Huehuetenango: Steyermark 51169 (MO); Izabal: Steyermark
39922 (F, MO); Jalapa: Standley 76816 (F, MO, NY); Petén: Steyermark
45910 (F, MO); Quezaltenango: Steyermark 33929A (F); Quiché: Sharp
2389 (MO); Retalhuleu: Standley 88544 (F); Santa Rosa: Standley
77966 (F); Sololá: Steyermark 46911 (F); Suchitepéquez: Standley
62234 (F). EL SALVADOR:
Ahuachapán: Winkler 31c (MO); Cabañas: Davidse et al. 37152 (BM,
MO); La Libertad: Davidse 37475 (MO); San Miguel: Munro et al. 2068
(BM, MO). HONDURAS. Atlántida: Allen 17204 (MO, TEFH); Choluteca: Standley
27209 (F); Comayagua: Allen 13731 (MO, TEFH); Copán: Allen 17677
(MO, TEFH); Cortés: Allen 17178 (MO, TEFH); Lempira: Allen 11147
(MO, TEFH); Francisco Morazán: Allen 17156 (MO, TEFH); Olancho: Allen
12406 (MO); Valle: Allen 17803 (MO, TEFH). NICARAGUA.
Chontales: Stevens 22622 (MO); Jinotega: Stevens 16554 (MO, NIC);
Zelaya: Stevens 8921 (MO). COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Crosby 3618
(MO); Cartago: Holz & Schäefer-Verwimp CR99-1404 (GOET, MO);
Guanacaste: McQueen 5036 (MO); Puntarenas: Hammel 18341 (CR, MO),
Cocos Islands: Gómez 4613 (MO); San José: Crosby 2477 (CR, MO).
PANAMA. Canal Area: Nee 8832 (MO); Chiriquí: Nee 10656 (MO);
Coclé: Tyson 2478A (NY); Colón: Welch 20034 (NY); Darién: Allen
8807 (MO, PMA); Panamá: Welch 20030 (MO, NY), Isla de Taboga: Nee
10292 (MO); San Blas: D’Arcy 1020 (MO); Veraguas: Crosby 10242
North-Central, Northeastern, Southwestern, South-Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.;
Mexico; Central America; Caribbean, Western and Northern South America, Brazil;
Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, China, Japan, Western Asia; Macaronesia, West, East, and South Tropical Africa,
West-Central and Southern Africa, Western Indian Ocean; Indian Subcontinent,
Indo-China, Malesia; Australia; Northwestern, North-Central, Southwestern
involuta (Hook.) Jaeg., Ber. Thätigk. St. Gallischen Naturwiss. Ges.
1871–72: 354. 1873.
involutum Hook., Musci. Exot. 2: 154. 1819. Protologue: Nepal. In Nepal. Hon.
Gymnostomum tortula Schwaegr., Sp. Musc. Suppl. 2(2):
78. 1826. Hyophila tortula (Schwaegr.) Hampe, Bot. Zeitung 4: 267. 1846.
Protologue: Cuba. In insula Cuba legit cl. D. Poeppig.
Plants small to medium-sized, dark
green to blackish green above, red to reddish brown below, in tufts to 15 mm
high. Stems irregularly branched, hyalodermis not or weakly differentiated,
central strand present; rhizoids sparse, red, smooth, greatly branched. Leaves
2–4 mm long, closely spaced, erect at base, tubulose, incurved or spreading when
dry, erect-spreading when wet, spathulate, concave, grooved along the costa;
apices rounded to rounded-obtuse; margins unistratose, plane or occasionally
recurved below, entire to denticulate or dentate above, not bordered but
occasionally the marginal cells lighter in color than the interior cells; costa
covered on ventral surface by short, quadrate cells, subpercurrent, percurrent,
or shortly excurrent into a reddish apiculus, guide cells and two stereid bands
present, enlarged ventral surface layer present; upper cells 6–10 x 8–10
μm, mammillose-bulging on upper surface, plane to weakly convex, smooth on
dorsal surface, rounded-quadrate to hexagonal, basal cells 12–40 x 8–18
μm, rectangular, with thin- or thick-walled. Propagula stellate to
dentate-ellipsoidal often on branched, axillary stalks. Dioicous. Setae 5–12 mm
long, yellow, becoming red with age. Capsules 1.0–3.2 mm long, cylindric;
opercula 0.75–1.0 mm, conic-rostrate; annuli of 2–3 rows of vesiculose cells;
peristome absent. Spores 8–10, smooth to lightly roughened. Calyptra cucullate,
spirally twisted around the capsule, smooth, 2.0–2.5 μm long.