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Published In: Species Muscorum Frondosorum 162–163. 1801. (Sp. Musc. Frond.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/9/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project data     (Last Modified On 3/9/2011)

Orthotrichum anomalum is the only saxicolous species of Orthotrichum in Central America. It has exserted capsules which separate it from all other regional species except O. pycnophyllum. Orthotrichum pycnophyllum is a more robust moss than O. anomalum and also differs in having consistently nodose basal leaf cells, a double peristome and superficial stomata. Sterile collections of O. anomalum can be recognized by its saxicolous habitat and non‑decurrent leaves that are widest below mid-leaf, have thin‑walled (rarely nodose) basal cells, and recurved margins. Although O. anomalum commonly has capsules with 8 short ribs alternating with 8 long ribs, capsules in Central American material are only eight ribbed. This variation in capsule ribbing  occurs elsewhere in O. anomalum (see Crum 1983), and is not considered a significant feature of the species (Lewinsky 1984). The world distribution of O. anomalum was mapped by Lewinsky (1993).

Illustrations: Bruch and Schimper (1837, Pl.110); Husnot (1887, Pl. 44); Limpricht (1890, Fig. 216); Dixon and Jameson (1896, Pl. 34 L); Brotherus (1902a, Fig. 318 A–D); Grout (1906, Fig. 86); Brotherus (1925, Fig. 434 A–D); Mönkemeyer (1927, Fig. 130 a); Bartram (1949, Fig. 95 A–C); Nyholm (1960, Fig. 192); Abramova et al. (1961, Fig. 203 1–5); Lawton (1971, Pl. 119 16–21); Flowers (1973, Pl. 57 1–8); Vitt (1973, Pl. 24); Smith (1978, Fig. 232 1–4); Crum and Anderson (1981, Fig. 333); Ireland (1982, Pl. 225); Abramova and Abramov (1983, Fig. 41 1–5); Lewinsky (1984, Figs. 12–20); Li (1985, Pl. 101 19–27); Noguchi (1989, Fig. 258A); Sharp et al. (1994, Fig. 459); Abramov and Volkova (1998, Fig. 81 1–8). Fig. 257.
Habitat: On limestone boulders and rock ledges; 3200–3500 m.
Distribution in Central America: GUATEMALA. Huehuetenango: Sharp 5000a (TENN).
World Range: Subarctic America, Western and Eastern Canada, Northwestern, North‑Central, Northeastern, Southwestern, South‑Central, and Southeastern U.S.A.; Mexico; Central America; Caribbean; Northern, Middle, East, Southwestern, and Southeastern Europe; Siberia, Russian Far East, Caucasus, Middle Asia, Western Asia, China, Mongolia, Eastern Asia; Northern Africa; Indian Subcontinent.


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Orthotrichum anomalum Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 162. 1801.

Protologue: Germany. In saxis, muris, tetulis, in Germania vulgaris.

Plants small to medium-size, in dense tufts or cushions, red‑brown, yellowish brown or olive‑green. Stems erect, 10–20 mm high, moderately tomentose. Leaves stiffly erect‑imbricate to erect‑patent when dry, erect‑spreading when wet, 2–3 mm long, lanceolate to ovate‑lanceolate, not decurrent; apices acute to rounded‑acute; margins entire, irregularly recurved to near the apex or plane in upper _ and recurved below; costae ending below the apex; upper cells 10–15 μm wide, rounded, isodiametric or irregularly hexagonal, pluripapillose, incrassate, basal cells short to long rectangular, 25–45 μm long, thin‑ or thick‑walled, sometimes nodose, smooth. Gonioautoicous. Setae to 2–3 mm long, twisted when dry. Capsules exserted, cylindric or oblong‑cylindric 1.5–2.0 mm long, 8‑ribbed in upper _, smooth or lightly ribbed below, not contracted below mouth when dry; stomata immersed, in upper to middle regions of capsules, subsidiary cells projecting over the stomata; opercula conic to rostellate, beak erect, 0.5 mm long; peristome single, exostome teeth 16, sometimes united into eight teeth‑pairs, erect, horizontally striate below, vertically striate above. Spores 12–16 μm, roughly papillose. Calyptrae mitrate, 2.5–3.0 mm long, with numerous, erect, papillose hairs.



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