Ecology and distribution.On tree trunks. At elevations from 1480 m (Colombia: 1480 m). Rather widespread, United States, Europe, southern Africa, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
The distinguishing feature of this species is the highly reduced leaf-like papillose-celled propagula found in the axil of upper leaves or stem tips. The Colombian collection was found on the campus of the Universidad de Antioquia, ca. 1480 m elevation.