5. Syntrichia ruralis (Hedw.) Web. & Mohr 山赤藓 shan chi xian
Index Mus. Pl. Crypt. 2, 1803. Tortula ruralis (Hedw.) Gaertn., Oekon. Fl. Wetterau 3(2): 91. 1802. Barbula ruralis Hedw., Sp. Musc. Frond. 121. 1801. Type. Germany.
Tortula reflexa X.-J. Li, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 3: 109, f. 6. 1981, hom. illeg. Type. China. Xizang, Ding-qing Co., M. Zang 5340a (holotype HKAS).
Plants large to rather robust, 5.0–8.0 cm high, dark green to reddish brown, in loose tufts. Stems erect, simple or irregularly branched, radiculose at base; central strand absent. Leaves appressed or erecto-patent to contorted-curved when dry, spreading or sometimes reflexed when moist, oblong-spathulate, rounded-obtuse to broadly acute at apex, upper lamina broadly channeled or keeled, sheathing at base; margins often recurved, crenulate by projecting papillae; costa rather stout, often reddish brown below, excurrent, ending in a rather long, hyaline awn, denticulate on the back or at tips; upper leaf cells subquadrate to rounded-hexagonal, each cell densely covered with several C-shaped papillae; basal cells distinctly differentiated, narrowly rectangular, thin-walled, hyaline, smooth. Dioicous. Setae elongate, straight, 1–2 cm long, reddish brown; capsules erect, cylindrical; peristome teeth filiform, twisted, papillose; basal membrane high, 1¤2 –1¤3 the peristome teeth length; annuli differentiated, of 2–3 rows of vesiculose cells, deciduous; opercula conic-rostrate, with a long oblique beak.