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Published In: Histoire des Plantes de la Guiane Françoise 1: 172–173, pl. 66. 1775. (Jun-Dec 1775) (Hist. Pl. Guiane) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/2/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 12/3/2010)

Palicourea Aubl. includes in its traditional sense about 250 species of shrubs and small trees distributed widely in the New World tropics. Palicourea plants are typically found in the understory and subcanopy of moist to wet tropical forests, from low to high elevations. Palicourea flowers have well developed tubes and are odorless, mostly brightly colored, and assumed to be pollinated by hummingbirds, and its fleshy blue or purple-black fruits are dispersed by birds. Nearly all Palicourea species are distylous; this appears to be the ancestral condition for the genus, and it seems to have been lost in at least a few species on Caribbean islands (Taylor, 1993). In this traditional sense Palicourea has been studied primarily regionally (Steyermark 1972, 1974; Bacigalupo 1952; Burger & Taylor 1993; Jung-Mendaçolli et al 2007; Taylor 1989, 1993, 2000, Taylor et al. 2007) , and monographic work is in progress (Taylor, 1997).

However Palicourea is closely related to many neotropical species that have been included in Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria Steyerm. (Steyermark, 1972), and in fact both morphological (Taylor, 1996) and molecular studies (Nepokroeff et al., 1999; Andersson, 2001; Andersson & Rova, 1999) show that Palicourea plus many of the species of Psychotria Subg. Heteropsychotria together comprise a monophyletic group. This expanded or combined group takes the name Palicourea, and is sometimes referred to as "Palicourea sensu lato". This group and also includes many of the species formerly called Cephaelis. Traditionally these genera have been separated mainly by their flower form: species of Palicourea generally have colored flowers separated on developed pedicels, corollas with well developed tubes, abundant nectar, and other adaptations for hummingbird pollination; while species of Subg. Heteropsychotria generally have small white flowers borne in various arrangements and pollinated by insects. Also the genus Cephaelis was previously separated from Palicourea and Psychotria Subg. Heteropsychotria by its capitate inflorescences with well developed bracts. It now appears that the inflorescence and corolla characters are widely variable within this group, and that both hummingbird pollination and capitate inflorescences with involucral bracts have evolved several times within this group (Nepokroeff et al., 1999; Andersson, 2001; Andersson & Rova, 1999).

Much work remains to be done in understanding species identities and relationships before these genera can be united in a meaningful fashion. Some of the species of Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria do not belong to Palicourea sensu lato and have been separated in several other genera, notably Notopleura, Margaritopsis, Ronabea, and Carapichea (in prep.). Transfer of the remaining species from Psychotria subg. Heteropsychotria to Palicourea is proceeding slowly (e.g., Taylor & Gereau, 2010), as individual species are studied and their circumscriptions and relationships clarified; the list here summarizes the progress of this work.

Author: C.M. Taylor.
The content of this web page was last revised on 3 December 2010.
Taylor web page: http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/curators/taylor.shtml



Neotropics: lowland to montane wet forests from Southern Florida, the Bahamas, and northern Mexico south to Bolivia and northern Argentina.


The following list is based on ongoing study, and is intended to facilite work on this genus. This list includes the species and names that have so far been studied.
Note: Synonymous names are listed here without links, and with their equivalents; accepted names are listed in the "Lower Taxa" section of this webpage, with links there to additional data (including images).
Note: For each accepted species name linked below, clicking will lead to the Rubiaceae Project data page. To then see the standard TROPICOS Name page directly from that page, go to the upper right of the screen and under "Project", choose "TROPICOS".
Note: Names in Cephaelis are treated separately, see its Rubiaceae Project Genus Page for synonymy.

Cossarea austin-smithii Standl. = Palicourea alajuelensis
Coussarea grandifructa C.M. Taylor = Palicourea grandifructa
Coussarea hondensis (Standl.) C.M. Taylor & Burger = Palicourea hondensis
Coussarea izabalensis C.M. Taylor = Palicourea mediocris
Coussarea jefensis Dwyer = Palicourea tubuliflora
Coussarea mediocris Standl. & Steyerm. = Palicourea mediocris
Coussarea nebulosa Dwyer = Palicourea nebulosa
Coussarea nigrescens C.M. Taylor = Palicourea beachiana
Coussarea psychotrioides C.M. Taylor & Hammel = Palicourea psychotrioides
Coussarea roseocremea Dwyer = Palicourea roseocremea

Palicourea acanthaceoides Wernham = Palicourea macrobotrys
Palicourea aculeifera Steyerm. = Palicourea longistipulata
Palicourea anacardifolia (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult.) Standl. = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea aphthosa Standl. = Palicourea sulphurea
Palicourea aragmatophylla K. Schum. & K. Krause= Palicourea heterochroma
Palicourea aristei Standl.= Palicourea albertsmithii
Palicourea aurantiaca Miq. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea aurata Mart.= Palicourea rigida
Palicourea austin-smithii Standl. = Palicourea salicifolia
Palicourea balnearia Standl.= Palicourea stipularis
Palicourea barbinervia DC.= Palicourea guianensis
Palicourea bostrychostachya Standl.= Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea brachypoda (Muell. Arg.) L.B. Sm. & Downs= Psychotria brachypoda
Palicourea brachystigma Urb.= Psychotria sp. Haiti
Palicourea brevithyrsa Britton & Standl.= Palicourea alpina
Palicourea bryophila Standl = Palicourea heterochroma
Palicourea caerulea (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult.= Psychotria caerulea Ruiz & Pav.
Palicourea caerulescens Suess. = Palicourea salicifolia
Palicourea caldasana Standl. = Palicourea demissa
Palicourea canaguensis Steyerm., = Palicourea demissa
Palicourea caprifoliacea Wernham = Palicourea lyristipula
Palicourea carpirostrata Dwyer = Palicourea ochnoides
Palicourea chimo Standl. & Steyerm. = Palicourea demissa
Palicourea chionantha DC. = Psychotria mapourioides DC.
Palicourea chlorocaerulea K.Krause = Palicourea weberbaueri
Palicourea chrysorrhachis Bremek. = Palicourea longistipulata
Palicourea circinata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.) Standl. = Psychotria ernestii K. Krause
Palicourea coccinea Poit. ex DC. = Palicourea crocea
Palicourea condensata Standl. = Palicourea lasiantha
Palicourea consobrina Standl. = Palicourea herrerae
Palicourea copensis (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor = Palicourea seemannii
Palicourea cornifolia Standl. = Palicourea buchtienii
Palicourea costaricensis Benth. = Palicourea padifolia
Palicourea crocea var. riparia (Benth.) Griseb. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea cujabensis Schltdl. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea cyanea Urb. = Psychotria toensis Britton & P. Wilson, Cuba
Palicourea cyclotis Standl. = Palicourea obovata
Palicourea didymocarpa (A. Rich.) Griseb. = Psychotria cornigera Benth.
Palicourea diuretica Mart. ex Schltdl. = Palicourea rigida
Palicourea dives Standl. = Psychotria dives (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
Palicourea duckei Standl. = Palicourea anisoloba
Palicourea effusa Standl. = Palicourea lineariflora
Palicourea egena Standl. = Palicourea weberbaueri
Palicourea elliptica Kunth = Psychotria ernestii K. Krause
Palicourea elongata Britton & P. Wilson ex Britton = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea ensiformis Steyerm. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea exiguiflora Standl. = Psychotria tipuanensis Standl.
Palicourea expetens Standl. = Palicourea corymbifera
Palicourea fendleri Standl. = Palicourea semirasa
Palicourea fragilior Wernham = Palicourea calothyrsus
Palicourea gachetaensis M.C.G. Kirkbr. = Palicourea tamaensis
Palicourea galeottiana M. Martens = Psychotria galeottiana (M. Martens) C.M. Taylor & Lorence
Palicourea garciae Steyerm. = Palicourea steyermarkii
Palicourea gardneriana (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea gibbosa Standl. = Palicourea pyramidalis
Palicourea gilgiana Standl. = Psychotria brachypoda
Palicourea glabrata H. Winkl. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea glaziovii Standl. = Psychotria ararum C.M. Taylor
Palicourea graciliflora Standl. = Palicourea hospitalis
Palicourea grandibractea Dwyer = Palicourea ochnoides
Palicourea haenkeana DC. = Palicourea obovata
Palicourea hassleriana Chodat = Psychotria hassleriana (Chodat) Standl.
Palicourea hebeantha DC. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea hedyosmoides Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea hedyotoides Wernham = Palicourea calothyrsus
Palicourea heterantha Standl. = Palicourea stipularis
Palicourea hispidula Standl. = Psychotria setulifera C.M. Taylor
Palicourea hoehnei K. Krause = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea huigrensis Standl. = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea hyacinthifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult. = Palicourea obovata
Palicourea hypomalaca Standl. = Palicourea guianensis
Palicourea insularis Ridl. = Erithalis insularis (Ridl.) Zappi & T.S. Nunes
Palicourea intermedia Oerst. ex Pol. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea irrasiflora Wernham = Palicourea lasiantha
Palicourea jamesonii Standl. = Palicourea lineata
Palicourea josephi Benoist, Ecuador: identity unclear
Palicourea juruana K. Krause = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea justicioides var. macrocalyx M.C.G. Kirkbr. = Palicourea kirkbrideae
Palicourea kalbreyeri Standl. = Palicourea lasiorrhachis
Palicourea kanehirae Standl. = Palicourea macbridei
Palicourea kerasocarpa K. Krause, Ecuador: identity unclear
Palicourea klugii Standl. = Palicourea nigricans
Palicourea kuhlmannii Standl., Brazil, identity unclear
Palicourea lagesii K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea lasiantha
Palicourea lanceolata Benth. ex Oerst. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea laniflora Standl. = Palicourea lasiantha
Palicourea lasioneura K. Krause = Palicourea macrobotrys
Palicourea lasseri Steyerm. = Palicourea apicata
Palicourea levis Standl. = Psychotria levis (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
Palicourea lindenii Standl. = Palicourea perquadrangularis
Palicourea longibracteata Bartl. ex DC. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea longiflora (Aubl.) A. Rich. = Palicourea longiflora DC.
Palicourea longifolia Kunth, Colombia: identity unclear
Palicourea longifolia St. Hil. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea longipes Rusby = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea lopeziana Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea lucentifolia Standl. = Palicourea quadrifolia
Palicourea lucidula Standl. = Palicourea bracetosa
Palicourea lugubris K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea conferta
Palicourea lusinaturalis Dwyer = Psychotria luxurians Rusby
Palicourea macrocarpa Kunth = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea macrophylla (Kunth) Standl. = Palicourea grandifolia
Palicourea macrosepala K Krause = Palicourea discolor
Palicourea mapirensis Standl. = Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea martinicensis Standl. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea melheana Jung-Mendaçolli = Palicourea rudgeoides
Palicourea membranifolia K. Schum. & K. Krause = Psychotria berteroana DC.
Palicourea mexiae Standl. = Palicourea seemannii
Palicourea mexicana Benth. = Palicourea padifolia
Palicourea micrantha Urb. & Ekman = Psychotria sp. Hispaniola
Palicourea molliramis K. Schum. & K. Krause = Psychotria hebeclada DC.
Palicourea mollis H. Winkl. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea montensis Dwyer = Psychotria croceovenosa Dwyer
Palicourea moritzii Wernham = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea nicotianifolia auctt. = Palicourea calophylla
Palicourea nicotianifolia Cham. & Schltdl. = Palicourea macrobotrys
Palicourea nigrescens M. Martens & Galeotti = Psychotria mexiae Standl.
Palicourea nubicola Steyerm. = Palicourea apicata
Palicourea obesiflora Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea chimboracensis
Palicourea obliqua H. Winkl. = Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea ochreata Wernham = Palicourea flavescens
Palicourea oreadium Standl. = Palicourea lineata
Palicourea orthoneura Standl. = Psychotria allenii Standl., Panama to Ecuador
Palicourea ovalifolia (Rusby) Standl. = Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea pacapacensis K.Krause, Ecuador: identity unclear, perhaps = Psychotria berteroana DC.
Palicourea panamensis Standl. = Palicourea discolor
Palicourea papyracea Rusby= Palicourea grandiflora
Palicourea paradisiaca Standl., identity unclear, perhaps = Palicourea ovalis
Palicourea parviflora Benth. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea pasti Wernham = Palicourea apicata
Palicourea patens (Sw.) Urb. = Psychotria patens Sw.
Palicourea pavetta (Sw.) DC. = Palicourea domingensis
Palicourea pearcei Standl. = Palicourea ponasae
Palicourea pennellii Standl. = Palicourea calothyrsus
Palicourea pentandra (Sw.) K. Schum. = Palicourea domingensis
Palicourea phanaerandra Standl. & Steyerm. = Psychotria phanerandra (Standl. & Steyerm.) Lorence, Mexico to Panama
Palicourea phoeniciana Standl. = Palicourea macrantha
Palicourea platypodina (Muell. Arg.)Standl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea pluricostata Standl. = Psychotria pluricostata (Standl.) C.M. Taylor
Palicourea polyneura K. Krause = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea popayanensis Benth. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea populifolia Rusby = Palicourea petiolaris
Palicourea prolata Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea psychotrioides (C.M. Taylor & Hammel) C.M. Taylor
Palicourea pulchra var. hispidula Proctor = Palicourea pulchra
Palicourea purdiei Standl. = Palicourea caloneura
Palicourea purpurascens Urb. = Psychotria toensis Britton & P. Wilson
Palicourea purpusii Standl. = Palicourea macrantha
Palicourea querceticola K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea radicans Standl. = Palicourea conferta
Palicourea raimondii Standl. = Psychotria reticulata Ruiz & Pav.
Palicourea rigida var. brevipes Rusby = Palicourea grandiflora
Palicourea riparia Benth. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea roraimae Standl. = Psychotria oblita Werham, Venezuela
Palicourea roseiflora K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea nitidella
Palicourea salmonea K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea sandiensis K. Krause = Palicourea flavifolia
Palicourea schimpffii Diels = Palicourea tectoneura
Palicourea seleri Loes. = Psychotria galeottiana (M. Martens) C.M. Taylor & Lorence
Palicourea sellowiana DC. = Palicourea guianensis
Palicourea sonans Mart. ex Schltdl. = Palicourea rigida
Palicourea sprucei (Muell. Arg.) K. Schum. = Palicourea grandifolia
Palicourea squarrosa (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea officinalis
Palicourea stenoclada (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea croceoides
Palicourea stenophylla K. Krause = Rudgea stenophylla (K. Krause) Standl.
Palicourea stenophylla Spreng. = Palicourea angustifolia
Palicourea stenostachya K. Krause = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea stevensonii Standl. = Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav.
Palicourea strepens Mart. ex Schltdl. = Palicourea rigida
Palicourea subaenofusca (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea subrubra Pol. = Palicourea padifolia
Palicourea subsecunda K. Schum. = Palicourea sodiroi
Palicourea susungensis Standl.ex Steyerm. = Palicourea garciae Standl.
Palicourea tabernifolia DC. = Palicourea domingensis
Palicourea tachirensis Standl. & Steyerm. = Psychotria schlimii Standl.
Palicourea talamancana Standl. & L.O. Williams= Palicourea brenesii
Palicourea tenuis Standl. = Palicourea herrerae
Palicourea ternata Urb. = Palicourea triphylla
Palicourea tinctoria (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria tinctoria Ruiz & Pav.
Palicourea toensis (Britton & P. Wilson) Standl. = Psychotria toensis Britton & P. Wilson
Palicourea torbeciana Urb. & Ekman = Psychotria sp.
Palicourea trichoneura Diels = Palicourea amethystina
Palicourea vacillans Standl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea velutina Schltdl. = Palicourea marcgravii
Palicourea venezuelensis Steyerm. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Palicourea veraguensis Dwyer = Palicourea lasiorrhachis
Palicourea verrucifera Standl. = Palicourea buchtienii
Palicourea verrucosa (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea corymbifera
Palicourea verticillata DC. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea violacea (Aubl.) A. Rich. = Psychotria capitata Ruiz & Pav.
Palicourea viridis (Ruiz & Pav.) Roem. & Schult. = Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pav.
Palicourea weddelliana (Muell. Arg.) Standl. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Palicourea williamsii Rusby= Palicourea mansoana
Palicourea xanthina DC. = Palicourea longiflora

Psychotria aenofusca Muell. Arg. = Palicourea marcgravii
Psychotria amazonica Muell. Arg. = Palicourea grandifolia
Psychotria amethystina Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea amethystina
Psychotria amplissima Standl. ex Steyerm. = Palicourea amplissima
Psychotria anisoloba Muell. Arg. = Palicourea anisoloba
Psychotria bangii Romero, nom. illeg. = Palicourea attenuata
Psychotria barraensis Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria boyacana Standl. = Palicourea tunjaensis
Psychotria breedlovei Lorence = Palicourea breedlovei
Psychotria brenesii Standl. = Palicourea standleyana
Palicourea calidicola C.M. Taylor = Palicourea calidicola
Psychotria cataractarum Muell. Arg. = Palicourea guianensis
Psychotria chiapensis Standl. = Palicourea tetragona
Psychotria chrysocalymma L.O. Williams = Palicourea chrysocalymma
Psychotria consanguinea Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria conferta Benth. = Palicourea conferta
Psychotria copensis Dwyer = Palicourea seemannii
Psychotria copeyana Standl. ex L.O. Williams = Palicourea garciae
Psychotria corymbifera Muell. Arg. = Palicourea corymbifera
Psychotria cymosa Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea cymosa
Psychotria diversicolor Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria domingensis Jacq. = Palicourea domingensis
Psychotria edaphothrix Steyerm. = Palicourea bracteosa
Psychotria eurycarpa Standl. = Palicourea eurycarpa
Psychotria faxlucens Lorence & Dwyer = Palicourea faxlucens
Psychotria fraterna Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria fulgens Muell. Arg. = Palicourea fulgens
Psychotria gallerana Standl. = Palicourea garciae
Psychotria gardenioides (Scheidw.) Standl. = Palicourea gardenioides
Psychotria gardneriana Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria heydei Standl. = Palicourea heydei
Psychotria hondensis Standl. = Palicourea hondensis
Psychotria hyacinthiflora Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea obovata
Psychotria laxa Ruiz & Pav., hom. illeg. = Palicourea laxa
Psychotria longiflora (Aubl.) Willd. = Palicourea longiflora
Psychotria longistipulata Muell. Arg. = Palicourea longistipulata
Psychotria mansoana Muell. Arg. = Palicourea mansoana
Psychotria marcgravii (A. St. Hil.) Spreng. = Palicourea marcgravii
Psychotria megalantha Lorence = Palicourea megalantha
Psychotria mexicana Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. = Palicourea padifolia
Psychotria mitis Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea sulphurea
Psychotria nebulosa Dwyer = Palicourea nebulosa
Psychotria neurothrix Muell. Arg. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Psychotria nitidella Muell. Arg. = Palicourea nitidella
Psychotria obovata Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea obovata
Psychotria obscurata Muell. Arg. = Palicourea grandiflora
Psychotria ovalifolia Rusby = Palicourea mansoana
Psychotria platypodina Muell. Arg. = Palicourea marcgravii
Psychotria punicea Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea punicea
Psychotria purpusii Standl. = Palicourea neopurpusii
Psychotria quadrifolia Rudge = Palicourea quadrifolia
Psychotria radians Muell. Arg. = Palicourea radians
Psychotria roseocremea (Dwyer) C.M. Taylor = Palicourea roseocremea
Palicourea rudgeoides Muell. Arg. = Palicourea rudgeoides
Psychotria salicifolia Rusby, nom. illeg. = Palicourea attenuata
Psychotria sancti-caroli Standl. = Palicourea longistipulata
Psychotria squarrosa Muell. Arg. = Palicourea officinalis
Psychotria sousae Lorence & Dwyer = Palicourea sousae
Psychotria stenoclada Muell. Arg. = Palicourea croceoides
Psychotria stenophylla Spreng. = Palicourea angustifolia
Psychotria subcrocea Muell. Arg. = Palicourea croceoides
Psychotria subscandens Muell. Arg. = Palicourea croceoides
Psychotria subtomentosa Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea subtomentosa
Psychotria sulphurea Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea sulphurea
Psychotria tabacifolia Muell. Arg. = Palicourea macrobotrys
Psychotria tetraphylla (Cham. & Schltdl.) Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria thornei Lorence = Palicourea thornei
Psychotria thyrsiflora Ruiz & Pav. = Palicourea thyrsiflora
Psychotria tutensis Dwyer = Palicourea tutensis
Psychotria umbelliformis Dwyer & M.V. Hayden = Palicourea umbelliformis
Psychotria verrucosa Muell. Arg. = Palicourea corymbifera
Psychotria verticillata (DC.) Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria weddelliana Muell. Arg. = Palicourea tetraphylla
Psychotria xanthophylla Muell. Arg. = Palicourea coriacea

Rudgea lehmannii K. Schum. & K. Krause = Palicourea lehmannii
Rhodostoma gardenioides Hemsl. = Palicourea gardenioides
Uragoga lineata (Benth.) Kuntze = Palicourea lineata
Uragoga remyana Baill. = Palicourea remyana
Watsonamra sordidiflora Rusby = Palicourea lasiantha


Lower Taxa
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