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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 134. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/11/2017)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 7/9/2009)
Status: Introduced


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1. Cynoglossum officinale L. (common hounds tongue)

Map 1292, Pl. 306 h, i

Plants biennial, with stout, woody taproots, producing an unpleasant musky odor when bruised or crushed. Stems 30–60 cm long, densely pubescent with slender, relatively soft, sometimes somewhat woolly hairs, leafy to the tip. Stem leaves oblanceolate to narrowly elliptic, narrowly oblong-elliptic, or narrowly lanceolate, tapered to rounded at the base, sometimes slightly clasping the stem, angled or tapered to a sharply pointed tip, grading into the bracts, the upper surface moderately roughened-pubescent with stiff, pustular-based hairs, the undersurface moderately to densely hairy with fine, softer hairs. Inflorescences usually not paired, with leaflike bracts 1–5 cm long at all or most of the branch points. Calyces 6–10 mm long at fruiting, spreading or loosely cupped around the fruit, broadly elliptic to broadly ovate. Corollas purplish red. Nutlets somewhat flattened along the dorsal surface, the attachment point usually with a well-developed rim. 2n=24. May–July.

Introduced, scattered, mostly in the Ozark and Ozark Border Divisions (native of Europe, Asia, introduced nearly throughout the U.S. and Canada). Banks of streams and rivers; also pastures, railroads, roadsides, and open, disturbed areas.

This species is considered a noxious weed in some western states, and toxicity to livestock due to pyrrolizidine alkaloids is a hazard (Burrows and Tyrl, 2001). Aside from its purple corollas and leafy inflorescences, it tends to have narrower stem and basal leaves than does C. virginianum.



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