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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 11/28/2012)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 11/28/2012)
Genus PASSIFLORA L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 955. 1753
Reference Killip, in Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 19:1-613. 1938.
Synonym Granadilla [Tourn. ex Rupp.] Adans. Fam. 2:408. 1763. Cieca Medik. Malvenfam. 97. 1787. Murucuja [Tourn.] Medik. loc. cit. 1787. Tacsonia Juss. Gen. 398. 1789. Erndelia Neck. Elem. 2:235. 1790. Distephana Juss. in Ann. Mus. Paris 6:396. 1805. Psilanthus Juss. loc. cit. 1805. Baldwinia Raf. in Amer. Monthly Mag. 267. 1818, non Torr. & Gray. Astephananthes Bory, in Ann. Gen. Sci. Phys. 2:138. 1819. Monactineirma Bory, loc. cit. 1819. Anthactinia Bory, loc. cit. 139. 1819. Polyanthea DC. in Mem. Soc. Phys. Geneve 1:43 5. 1822. Disemma Labill. Sert. Austro-caled. 78. 1824. Distephia Salisb. ex DC. Prodr. 3:335. 1828. Astrophea Rchb. Consp. 132. 1828. Blephistelma Raf. Fl. Tellur. 4:103. 1836. Macrophora Raf. loc. cit. 1836. Meioperis Raf. loc. cit. 1836. Tripsilina Raf. loc. cit. 1836. Xerogona Raf. loc. cit. 1836. Peremis Raf. loc. cit. 104. 1836. Pericodia Raf. loc. cit. 1836. Synactila Raf. loc. cit. 1836. Odostelma Raf. loc. cit. 1836. Distephania Steud. Nom. 1:521. 1840. Dysosmia Roem. Synops. Monogr. 2:149. 1846. Pentaria Roem. loc. cit. 131, 187. 1846. Decaloba Roem. loc. cit. 131, 152. 1846. Distemma Lem. Fl. des Serres 236. 1847. Poggendorffia Karst. in Linnaea 28:438. 1856. Rathea Karst. Fl. Colomb. 1:77. 1859. Ceratosepalum Oerst. Rech. Fl. Amer. Centr. 18. 1863.
Description Herbaceous or woody lianas, usually climbing by tendrils, rarely erect herbs, shrubs, or small trees. Leaves alternate, petiolate, basifixed to peltate, simple or very rarely compound, entire to deeply lobed, occasionally with large irregular glandular areas (ocellate) upon the blade; petiole frequently with few to several more or less conspicuous glands. Tendrils volubile, solitary, simple, axillary or
Habit Herb lianas
Description produced from the inflorescence. Inflorescence axillary, usually 1-flowered, less frequently cymose and few-flowered, the peduncle jointed and there producing usually 3 inconspicuous and setaceous to large and petaloid involucrate bracts. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, frequently large and showy, perigynous. Hypanthium shallow to relatively deep, the sepals 5, valvate, usually with a cornic- ulate process toward the tip in the large-flowered species; petals 5, rarely absent, inserted at the margin of the hypanthium, green to highly colored; corona of numerous petaloid filaments in 1 to several centripetally decreasing series inserted on the margin of the hypanthium at the base of the corolla. Pistil and stamens borne upon a more or less elongate common androgynophore; stamens 5, borne immediately beneath the pistil, the anthers 2-celled, versatile; pistil 3- or very rarely 4-carpellate, the ovary 1-loculate with 3 or very rarely 4 parietal placentas bearing numerous ovules, the 3-4 stigmas usually quite sessile, rather elongate, radial. Fruit an inflated berry, frequently large, globose to fusiform, containing numerous small hard lenticular seeds immersed in abundant mucilaginous pulp derived from the testa.
Note Although the Passifloraceae include a few small genera of the Old World as well, the large genus Passiflora is confined to the Americas in its indigenous distri- bution, although numerous species with showy flowers and edible fruits have been introduced into the tropics of the Eastern Hemisphere and are frequently culti- vated in greenhouses in the colder latitudes. In America native species are found from the south-central United States to Argentina. Their extremely complicated and frequently large and brightly colored flowers have attracted several botanists to the special study of the Passifloras, the most recent of whom is E. P. Killip. In his study of Passiflora, Killip recognizes 353 species which are distributed amongst no less than 22 subgenera, chiefly based upon rather intricate differences in flower structure. Twenty-six species have been discovered in Panama to which at least a few additions undoubtedly will be made in the future. The present account has been drawn very largely from that of Killip's monumental work, although the keys are original and the species concept has been changed in a few minor instances. The authors of this Flora are grateful to Mr. Killip for the generous cooperation which he has given them in the naming of their study material over many years. Early Spanish missionaries to the New World saw in the radiant flowers of Passiflora a symbol of the Crucifixion, and from this inspiration the Spanish popular name pasionaria and the English "Passionflower" have had their origin. Less rev- erent Spanish names of frequent application to various species are caizoncillo and ala de murcielago. The large pulpy berries of various species, particularly the frequently cultivated P. edulis and P. quadrangularis are known as granadillas and are eaten raw or more often cooked with milk to make a kind of dessert.
Key a. Flowers typically rather small, mostly less than 5 cm. in diameter, usually paired or several at the nodes (usually solitary in P. punctata); sepals not corniculate toward the tip; bracts small and setose, very inconspicuous; petiolar glands usually 2 when present. b. Flowers 2 upon a common elongate peduncle, the associated tendril terminal; plants glabrous and very glaucous; leaves small, sub- orbicular, entire or nearly so; petiole with 2 foveate glands at the juncture with the blade .- .-.-... 1. P. TRYPHIOSTEMMATOIDES bb. Flowers 1 or several upon paired (occasionally solitary) peduncles, the associated tendril basal. c. Petioles eglandular. d. Flowers few or several upon each peduncle; plants densely pubescent. -2. P. SEXFLORA dd. Flowers solitary upon each peduncle; plants glabrous or very inconspicuously pubescent. e. Leaves basifixed; stipules minute and setose. f. Peduncles jointed at about the middle or somewhat below; flowers usually paired at the nodes. . 3. P. BIFLORA ff. Peduncles jointed far above the middle, almost directly beneath the flower. g. Leaves about twice as long as broad or nearly so, very broadly 3-lobed with the central lobe stronger, occasion- ally nearly entire; flowers usually paired at the nodes . 4. P. LANCEARIA gg. Leaves about as broad as long; flowers usually paired at the nodes. h. Leaves with 2 strongly ascending lateral lobes, rarely with a weak central lobe; petals absent ........................... 5. P. APETALA hh. Leaves about equally 3-lobed; petals present. -.... 6. P. PANAMENSIS ggg. Leaves much broader than long, with 2 nearly transverse lateral lobes; flowers usually solitary at the nodes ............... 7. P. PUNCTATA ee. Leaves eccentrically peltate, entire or if 3-lobed the central lobe far stronger; stipules large and foliaceous, amplexicaul, ciliate-serrate, deciduous ................................................ 8. P. HAHNIT cc. Petioles glandular. d. Leaves eccentrically peltate, deeply 3-lobed, the lateral lobes nearly transverse and as strong as the central to much stronger; stipules inconspicuous and subsetaceous. -------------------------------------------9. P. CORIACEA dd. Leaves basifixed. e. Flowers typically 2 or more upon a short common peduncle; leaves broadly 3-lobed, the lobes rounded, occasionally mu- cronulate, the central far stronger; petiolar glands inconspic- uous, broadly poculiform ...............1... ............ ........... 10. P. HOLOSERICEA ee. Flowers solitary upon each peduncle; leaf -lobDes acute to acuminate; petiolar glands conspicuously elevated. f. Leaves entire or subentire with the lateral lobes reduced to inconspicuous angles; petiolar glands very large and auric- ular, borne toward the base of the petiole .................................. 11. P. AURICULATA ff. Leaves definitely 3-lobed; petiolar glands rather inconspic- uous, borne about midway or higher upon the petiole. g. Petiolar glands borne about midway upon the petiole; petals present, linear ......................... 12. P. PEDICULATA gg. Petiolar glands borne almost directly beneath the leaf blade; petals absent ......................... 13. P. SUBEROSA aa. Flowers typically rather large, mostly more than 5 cm. in diameter, sol- itary at the nodes (except occasionally in P. adenopoda); sepals usually conspicuously corniculate toward the tip (except in P. pulchella and P. mnembranacea); bracts conspicuous and involucrate, foliaceous or petala- ceous; petiolar glands usually more than 2 when present. b. Involucral bracts entire, serrulate, or simply lacerate. c. Sepals not corniculate; petioles not glandular. d. Leaves cuneately 2-lobed, occasionally with a small central lobe; stipules inconspicuous and subsetaceous; involucral bracts obo- vate, obtuse or acute at the base, 1.0-1.5 cm. long; flowers about 4-6 cm. in diameter .. .................................................... 14. P. PULCHELLA dd. Leaves suborbicular, indistinctly 3-lobed; stipules conspicuously foliaceous; involucral bracts suborbicular, deeply cordate, about 3-5 cm. long; flowers about 7-8 cm. in diameter ......................... 15. P. MEMBRANACEA cc. Sepals corniculate; petioles glandular. d. Leaves palmately 3- to 7-parted to below the middle, the central lobe somewhat contracted toward the base. e. Involucral bracts much shorter than the sepals, free and never enveloping the flower bud, serrate or lacerate. f. Leaves 5- to 7-lobed (very rarely 3-lobed) petiolar glands very large and prominently stipitate, borne almost directly beneath the leaf blade; involucral bracts lacerate; flowers purple and white ....................................................... 16. P. ADENOPODA ff. Leaves 3-lobed; petiolar glands inconspicuous and sessile, borne toward the base of the petiole; involucral bracts glandular-serrulate; flowers scarlet and yellow ....................... 17. P. VITIFOLIA ee. Involucral bracts almost as long as the sepals, united toward the base and completely enveloping the flower bud, entire; flowers violet and white ....................................................... 18. P. WILLIAMSII dd. Leaves entire, or palmately 3-lobed above or about the middle and with the central lobe not constricted toward the base. e. Leaves 3-lobed. f. Plants more or less pilose; leaves lobed above the middle, the central lobe much stronger; petioles with 2 to several pairs of glands; involucral bracts rather narrowly lanceolate, foli- aceous ....................................................... 19. P. MENISPERMIFOLIA ff. Plants glabrous; leaves lobed to about the middle, the 3 lobes subequal; petioles with 1 pair of glands; involucral bracts broadly ovate, somewhat petalaceous ....................................... 20. P. SUBPELTATA ee. Leaves entire, deeply cordate in some species. f. Stipules very conspicuously foliaceous. g. Stipules equilateral, deciduous; involucral bracts about as long as the sepals. h. Stems not winged; leaves deeply cordate; petioles with filiform glands. ....................................................... 21. P. LIGULARIS hh. Stems prominently winged; leaves rounded at the base to obscurely cordate; petioles with ovoid glands .. . 22. P. QUADRANGULARIS gg. Stipules strongly inequilateral, persistent; involucral bracts about half as long as the sepals ............................................. 23 P. OERSTEDII ff. Stipules inconspicuous and subsetaceous or barely foliaceous. g. Leaves obtuse or very slightly cordate at the base; in- volucral bracts free. h. Leaves entire; petioles glandular at the middle or below; flowers maroon, purple and white ....................... 24. P. AMBIGUA hh. Leaves serrate or serrulate; petioles glandular above the middle; flowers white and purple ..................................... 25. P. NITIDA gg. Leaves deeply cordate at the base; petioles glandular directly beneath the leaf blade; involucral bracts united at the base; flowers purple and white ................................... 26. P. SEEMANNII bb. Involucral bracts complexly 2- or 3-pinnatifid, each filiform division gland-tipped; plants hirsutulose; petioles with scattered gland-tipped hairs; flowers greenish white more or less tinged with purple ............... 27 P. FOETIDA
 
 
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