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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 11/27/2012)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 11/27/2012)
Genus CASSIA (Tourn.) L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 376. 1753.
Synonym Senna (Tourn.) Mill. Gard. Dict. ed. 4. 1754. Chamaecrista Moench, Meth. 272. 1794. Cathartocarpus Pers. 'Syn. P1. 1:459. 1805. Grimaldia Schrank, in Denkschr. Akad. Mfinchen, 103. 1808. Bactyrilobium Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 1:439. 1809. Ca'ssiana Raf. in Am. Monthly Mag. 2:266. 1818. Chamaecassia Link, Handb. 2:139. 1831. Chamaefistula G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichl. PI. 2:451. 1832. Adipera Raf. Sylva Tellur. 129. 1838. Dialanthera Raf. loc. cit. 127. 1838. Diallobus Raf. loc. cit. 128. 1838. Disterepta Raf. loc. cit. 126. 1838. Diplotax Raf. loc. cit. 129. 1838. Ditremexa Raf. loc. cit. 127. 1838. Emelista Raf. loc. cit. 1838. Hepteireca Raf. loc. cit. 126. 1838. Herpetica Raf. loc. cit. 123. 1838. Isandrina Raf. loc. cit. 126. 1838. Nictitella Raf. loc. cit. 128. 1838. Octelisia Raf. loc. cit. 129. 1838. Ophiocaulon Raf. loc. cit. 1838. Panisia Raf. loc. cit. 128. 1838. Peiranisia Raf. loc. cit. 127. 1838. Scolodia Raf. loc. cit. 128. 1838. Tagera Raf. loc. cit. 129. 1838. Xamacrista Raf. loc. cit. 127. 1838. Mac-Leayia Montr. in Mem. Acad. Lyon 10:198. 1860. Chamaesenna Raf.; Pittier, Arbol. & Arbust. Legum. 130. 1928. Cowellocassia Britt. in N. Am. Fl. 23:251. 1930. Desmodiocassia Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 244. 1930. Earleocassia Britt. loc. cit. 247. 1930. Echinocassia Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 251. 1930. Gaumerocassia Britt. loc. cit. 252. 1930. Leonocassia Britt. loc. cit. 268. 1930. Palmerocassia Britt. loc. cit. 253. 1930. Phragmocassia Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 245. 1930. Pseudocassia Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 230. 1930. Psilorhegma (Benth.) Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 255. 1930. Pterocassia Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 243. 1930. Sciacassia Britt. loc. cit. 252. 1930. Sericeocassia Britt. loc. cit. 246. 1930. Tharpia Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 1930. Vogelocassia Britt. loc. cit. 258. 1930. Xerocassia Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 246. 1930.
Description Trees, shrubs or herbs, or sometimes vine-like. Leaves pinnate, 2- to many- foliolate or occasionally aphyllous, often with petiolar or rachial glands; leaflets entire, often inequilateral. Inflorescence bracteate, axillary or terminal, racemose or paniculate or the flowers rarely subsolitary. Flowers usually yellow, conspicuous; calyx with a disc-like base and 5 usually imbricate sepals; petals 5, distinct, ex- panded, often unequal; stamens 10-4, the 3 uppermost usually rudimentary or lacking, the 4 median similar, usually intermediate in size, often conspicuously rostrate; the 3 lowermost similar or dissimilar, rarely lacking, variously modified but usually rostrate, usually larger than the median stamens; anthers dehiscent by terminal or basal pores or sometimes (in addition) lateral slits, basifixed and erect; ovary sessile or stipitate, several- to many-ovulate. Legume dehiscent or sometimes indehiscent, terete or more often compressed or flattened, the seeds often horizontal, the funicle filiform to very short.
Habit Trees shrubs
Habit herbs vine
Distribution A very large natural genus of world-wide distribution, common mostly to the tropics and subtropics; very abundant in the Americas.
Key a. Leaves without petiolar or rachial glands. b. Leaves normally multifoliolate, with 4 (very infrequently) or more pairs of leaflets. c. Three lowermost stamens with slender filaments at least 5 times the length of the ovate anthers; anthers dehiscent basally as well as apically. d. Leaflets 8 or less pairs, large, 8-20 cm. long; flowers about 4 cm. broad; introduced tree ...................................................................... 1. C. FISTULA dd. Leaflets up to 20 pairs, small, 6 cm. or less long; flowers about 2 cm. broad. e. Calyx canescent-tomentulose without; median stamens 5, sub- equal, the anthers lightly pilose; ovary tomentose; flowers pink or white ........-.......... 2. C. GRANDIS ee. Calyx puberulent to subglabrous without; median stamens 4, the anthers glabrous; ovary essentially glabrous; flowers yellow ........ . 3. C. MOSCHATA cc. Lowermost stamens mostly with the oblong anthers longer than the filaments, but in no case the filaments more than about twice as long as the anther; anthers dehiscent apically. d. Three lowermost anthers very long-rostrate; leaflets normally 12-40 pairs, smaller (1-4 cm. long); unusual in Panama ...-.. 29. C. MULTIJUGA dd. Lowermost anthers short-rostrate; leaflets normally 6-15 pairs, larger (3-15 cm. long). e. Bracts of inflorescence small and narrow or caducous, not en- sheathing the upper buds; lowermost lateral anthers about 7 mm. long, only slightly exceeding the median anthers; legume either turgid-quadrangular or, if flattened, relatively few- septate and undulate medianly. f. Leaflets ovate-oblong, blunt apically, minutely puberulent below; some filaments longer than the anther; ovary pubes- cent; legume flattened; introduced tree .................................... 4. C. SIAMEA ff. Leaflets lanceolate, acute apically, lightly pubescent below; filaments shorter than the anthers; ovary glabrous; legume turgid-quadrangular .............-.....-... ................................ 5. C. SPECTABILIS ee. Raceme with large, subovate bracts (mostly 1-2.5 cm. long) ensheathing the buds; 2 lowermost lateral anthers 11 mm. long or longer, greatly exceeding the median anthers; legume flat (but winged laterally in C. alata), multiseptate. f. Leaflets narrowly elliptic or oblong, mostly less than 2 cm. wide, acute (occasionally obtuse) and markedly mucro- nate apically; stipules in native species foliaceous, obliquely reniform, about 3 cm. long. g. Leaflets pubescent; ovary tomentose; introduced ................ 6. C. DIDYMOBOTRYA gg. Leaflets glabrous; ovary glabrous ...................... 7. C. NICARAGUENSIS ff. Leaflets oblong to obovate, mostly 2-8 cm. wide, rounded and blunt apically, sometimes mucronulate; stipules inequi- laterally lanceolate, about 1 cm. long. g. Leaflets conspicuously tomentulose below, especially on the veins; legume not alate ................ 8. C. RETICULATA gg. Leaflets glabrous or nearly so; legume winged .................... 9. C. ALATA bb. Leaves normally 4- or 2-foliolate (occasional leaves up to lO-foliolate in C. emargitata). c. Shrub or small tree; mature leaf larger, most leaflets 3-8 cm. long; legume elongate, at least 15 cm. long; to be expected in Panama.... 10. C. EMARGINATA cc. Herbaceous or trailing; leaf smaller, the leaflets 0.5-3 cm. long; legume shorter, less than 8 cm. long. d. Leaflets normally 4; flowers in short terminal racemes; stipules minute. e. Leaves and flowers larger (sepals mostly 8 mm. long or longer); leaflets essentially glabrous below .................................. 11. C. HISPIDULA (341) This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.231 on Mon, 26 Nov 2012 17:10:32 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions[VOL. 38 42 ANNALS OF THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN ee. Leaves and flowers smaller (sepals mostly 7 mm. long or shorter); leaflets more or less setulose or pubescent below .........1 la. C. HISPIDULA var. KILLIP11 dd. Leaflets normally 2; flowers 1-2 from the axils; stipules about as long as the petsoles ........................................ ................ 12. C. ROTUNDIFOLIA aa. At least most leaves with glands on petiole or rachis. b. Glands borne on the petiole (below lowermost pair of leaflets). c. Stamens similar (although unequal), the anthers erostrate and with a puberulent longitudinal ridge laterally; glands concave apically (stipitate or sessile), borne on mid or upper petiole; leaf- lets mostly 0.5-2.5 cm. long; "Chamaecrista". d. Leaflets 1-3 pairs; stipules cordate-lanceolate. e. Leaflets a single pair ................-.........-... .....-..........-... ..... 13. C. DIPHYLLA ee. Leaflets 2-3 pairs. f. Plant mostly prostrate; petiolar gland stipitate; flower small, scarcely 1 cm. wide; legume small, about 1 cm. long..... 14. C. TAGERA ff. Plant shrub-like; petiolar gland sessile; flower larger, at least 2 cm. wide; legume larger, about 3 cm. long ................ 15. C. BREVIPES dd. Leaflets many pairs; stipules linear-lanceolate. e. Flowers borne from the leaf axils; stems flexuous .. 16. C. rLEXUOSA ee. Flowers borne from the internode; stems scarcely flexuous. f. Petiolar glands stipitate; stems usually pilose (in Panama), the long hairs spreading, at right-angles to the stem. g. Flowers smaller (about 6 mm. long); largest anthers about 4 mm. long; ovary villous-pilose - . -................. 17. C. STENOCARPA gg. Flowers larger (normally 1 cm. long or longer); largest anthers 7-12 mm. long; ovary strigose-pilose or tomen- tose. h. Flowers scarcely more than 1 cm. long; longer anthers about 7 mm. long; petiolar gland usually short-stipitate or thickened ................................................... ....... . 17a. C. STENOCARPA var. STENOCARPOIDES hh. Flowers mostly 12-15 mm. long; longer anthers usually 11-12 mm. long; petiolar gland usually slen- derly stipitate ........................................................... .... 18. C. FLAVICOMA ff. Petiolar glands sessile, patelliform; stem pubescence of mostly shorter, ascending hairs. g. Leaflets puhescent, the surface (in dried material) ap- pearing verrucose with the pustuliform hair bases; stem pubescence ascending ....................... -.............................. 19. C. PATELLARIA gg. Leaflets glabrous, the surface more or less smooth; stem pubescence appressed-ascending ............................................. 20. C. SIMPLEX cc. Stamens dissimilar, the anthers short-rostrate and glabrous; glands convex, usually borne close to petiolar insertion; leaflets mostly 2-10 cm. long. d. Plant pubescent to hirsute; legume elongate and very narrow, about 4 mm. wide ...........................................-............-........... . 21. C. LEPTOCARPA var. HIRSUTA dd. Plant glabrous or puberulent; legume shorter and broader, about 6 mm. wide. e. Petiolar gland globose; leaflets averaging slightly larger (2-10 cm. long) ......................................................... 22. C. OCCIDENTALIS (including C. SOPHERA ee. Petiolar gland elongate cylindric; leaflets averaging slightly smaller (1.5-6 cm. long) 23. C. LIGUSTRINA bb. Glands borne on the rachis between the lowermost pair or pairs of leaflets or their scars. c. Leaflets 3 or more pairs. d. Leaflets only 3 pairs, pubescent below; legume usually strongly arcuate or falcate-curved. e. Flowers larger, petal about 20-25 mm. long; at least some stamens elongate, with anthers 8-10 mm. long; legume flattened ........................................................ 25. C. LE1OPHYLLA ee. Flowers smaller, petals up to 12 mm. long; all stamens short, the anthers 2-4 mm. long; legume subterete .............................. 26. C. TOsRA (342) This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168.72.231 on Mon, 26 Nov 2012 17:10:32 PMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions19 5 1] FLORA OF PANAMA (Legurninosae) 43 dd. At least some leaves with more than 3 pairs of leaflets, mostly subglabrous or glaucous below (C. bicapsularis, occasionally with only 3 pairs of leaflets, has a broader legume usually 1 cm. or more wide; C. laevigata, with either 3 or 4 pairs of leaflets, has these glabrous); legume straight or inconstantly arcuate. e. Upper stem usually hirsute with hairs about 8 mm. long; rachial glands long-stipitate; leaflets 30 or more pairs, linear (mostly 1.5-3.0 mm. wide) ......................................................... 28. C. WILLIAMSII ee. Upper stem when pubescent with hairs about 1 mm. long; rachial glands short-stipitate to subsessile; leaflets fewer (except often in C. multijuga), mostly oblong or wider (at least 5 mm. wide). f. Leaflets normally 12-40 pairs, the rachis 10-25 cm. long; legume flat, about 15 mm. wide .................. 29. C. MULTIJUGA ff. Leaflets 10 or fewer pairs, the rachis 1-14 cm. long; legume if flat not over 5 mm. wide, otherwise subterete. g. Flowers borne in pairs on filiform pedicels from an axillary peduncle; lowermost anthers very long-rostrate; legume 5 mm. or less wide, flat ... ........... 30. C. BIFLORA gg. Flowers racemose; lowermost anthers mostly moderately rostrate; legume 8 mm. or more wide, subterete. h. Upper stems and lower surface of leaflets puberulent; lowermost lateral anthers long-rostrate . .............. 31 a. C. BICAPSULARIS var. PUBESCENS hh. Upper stems and lower surface of leaflets glabrous; lowermost lateral anthers short-rostrate. i. Leaflets obovate, rounded to subtruncate apically, mostly 3 cm. or less long; larger anthers conspicu- ously rostrate .................................................................. 31. C. BICAPSULARIS ii. Leaflets ovate, acute-acuminate, mostly 3-10 cm. long; anthers scarcely rostrate ..-..... 24. C. LAEVIGATA cc. Leaflets only 2 pairs. d. Typically herbaceous; legume very slender, only 3-4 mm. wide; pubescence of long hairs ....................................................... ..... 27. C. PILIFERA dd. Trees or shrubs; legume 6-20 mm. wide; pubescence, if any, of short hairs. "CHAMAEFISTULA". e. Large subfoliaceous bracts (and stipules) persistent; leaflets small (not over 4 cm. wide), inequilaterally subfalcate and acuminate. f. Floral bracts about 2 mm. long -------------------------------------.------- 32. C. UNICA ff. Floral bracts about 8 mm. long or longer -.- . - 33. C. UNDULATA ee. Bracts (and stipules) mostly caducous (if occasionally per- sistent in C. Maxonii, smaller and not foliaceous); leaflets with various but not all of the 3 characters listed above (e). f. Leaflets only slightly inequilateral, acute, tomentulose be- low with raised hairs and prominent brownish veins. g. Fertile stamens only 4 ------------------------...-.. 34. C. MAXONII gg. Fertile stamens more than 4-............................. .... 35. C. OXYPHYLLA var. DARIENSIS ff. Leaflets if acute markedly inequilateral, otherwise acumi- nate or caudate, puberulent below with very short or appressed hairs or glabrous; fertile stamens usually 7. g. Leaflets markedly inequilateral, acute; lower 3 anthers dehiscent by a single terminal pore .36. C. FRUTICOSA gg. Leaflets not or but slightly inequilateral; all anthers dehiscent by paired terminal pores (although the pores often somewhat confluent in lower 3 anthers). h. Leaflets acuminate; petioles short, usually about 3 cm. long; 3 lowermost anthers shorter than 4 median ones; lower leaf surface puberulous... . 3 6a. C. FRUTICOSA var. GATUNENSIS hh. Leaflets caudate; petioles almost 10 cm. long; 3 lower- most anthers longer than the 4 median ones; lower leaf surface glabrous .37. C. CAUDATA
 
 
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