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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 11/16/2012)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 11/19/2012)
Genus EPIDENDRUM L.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. Pl. ed. 2. 1347. 1763
Reference Ames, Hubbard & Schweinfurth, Genus Epidendrum in U. S. & Middle America, pp. 1-233. 1936. Non L. Sp. Pl. ed 1. 952. 1753. Conserved name, the generic type being Epidendrum nocturnum Jacq.
Synonym Amphiglottis Salisb. in Trans. Hort. Soc. Lond.1:294. 1812, nomen nudum. Auliza Salisb. loc. cit., nomen nudum. Dinema Lindl. Collect. Bot., App. 1825, nomen subnudum. Encyclia Hook. in Bot. Mag. 55: t. 2831. 1828. Nanodes Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1541. 1832. Physinga Lindl. in Bot. Reg. 24: Misc. p. 32. 1838. Barkeria Knowl. & Westc. Fl. Cab. 2:7, t. 49. 1838. Hormidium Lindl. ex Heynhold, Nomencl. Bot. Hort. Nachtr. 880. 1841. Spathiger Small, Fl. Miami, p. 55. 1913. Dimerandra Schltr. in Fedde Rep. Sp. Nov. Beih. 17:43. 1922.
Description

Small to large, epiphytic or semi-epiphytic herbs or subshrubs with or without the stems swollen into pseudobulbs. Stems (secondary) swollen into pseudobulbs and the leaves borne at or near the apex of the pseudobulbs (? ENCYCLIUM); or the stems slender and not swollen and with the leaves scattered along the stem (? EUEPIDENDRUM); or slender or fusiform stems with the leaves scattered along them but with the base of the stems swollen (? BARKERIA). Leaves variable in shape and size, usually coriaceous but occasionally fleshy. Inflorescence commonly terminal but occasionally lateral or both terminal and lateral, rarely borne from lateral, leafless shoots which later develop into pseudobulbs or stems; from simple and often 1-flowered to compound and many-flowered. Flowers from small to relatively large. Sepals equal or subequal, spreading, reflexed or subconnivent. Petals similar to the sepals but usually smaller and narrower or even filiform, occasionally broader. Lip unguiculate; the claw free, partially free, or adnate to the column; lamina simple or 3-lobed, the lobes often lobulate; the disc ecallous or usually bicallous and with or without lamellae or additional calluses. Column stout or slender, alate or exalate, clinandrium variously developed. Anther terminal, operculate, incumbent, 2-celled and with each cell more or less divided by a septum; pollinia 4, uniseriate, laterally compressed, with appendages, rarely without, waxy. Capsule various, winged or wingless.

Note Epidendrum is the largest genus of neotropical orchids. It contains about one thousand species. Certain species are exceedingly abundant in their range and in places might almost be called weeds. The most recent study of this vast genus is Ames, Hubbard, and Schweinfurth's admirable monograph, cited above. We are much indebted to the authors of the fine key in that work, which has been followed as closely as possible in the following key to the Panamanian species. We are particularly indebted to Mr. Charles Schweinfurth for suggestions and criticism during its preparation, and to Prof. Oakes Ames for his generous permission to use many of the illustrations.
Key a. Stems with true pseudobulbs surrounded by scarious non-leaf-bearing sheaths or occasionally leaf-bearing sheaths; leaves 1 or more borne at or near the summit of the pseudobulbs; lip free from the column or variously adnate to it ............... Sect. I. ENCYCLIUM (p. 322) aa. Stems lacking true pseudobulbs although sometimes thickened; leaves distributed along the stem or at least leaf-sheaths surrounding the thickened bases of the stem. b. Lip free from the column or adnate only at -the base; the col- umn usually winged; the stems swollen at the base or fusiform- cylindric ........ Sect. II. BARKERIA (p. 338) bb. Lip usually adnate to the entire length of the column (occasionally less); the column not winged laterally; stem never swollen Sect. III. EUEPIDENDRUM (p. 338) Sect. I. ENCYCLIUM a. Lip entire or at most obscurely lobulate. b. Pseudobulbs 1-leaved. c. Lip ligulate or pandurate, slightly broader toward the apex. d. Ovary muricate; sepals more than 10 mm. long -3. E. BooTHIs dd. Ovary smooth; sepals less than 10 mm. long ........-. 13. E. OTTONIS cc. Lip ovate to suborbicular-cordate. d. Leaves narrowly linear - -20. E. STANGEANUM dd. Leaves ligulate to oblong-elliptic. e. Lip hastate-rotund, acute; sepals oblong-lanceolate ..... 18. E. SPONDIADUM ee. Lip ovate to ovate-subrotund, acuminate; sepals linear- lanceolate0 ................. . IO. E. FRAGRANS bb. Pseudobulbs 2- or more leaved. c. Inflorescence abbreviated; peduncle short or wanting ....................... 1. E. ABBREVIATUM cc. Inflorescence not abbreviated; peduncle more or less elongated. d. Lamina of the lip noticeably longer than broad. e. Apex of the lip rounded, obtuse, truncate or retuse [Species reported in cultivation]8..................................... M............................ 80. E. LIVIDUM ee. Apex of the lip acute or acuminate 4. E. BRASSAVOLAE dd. Lamina of the lip as broad as long or broader than long. e. Bracts of the inflorescence conduplicate and clasping the pedicel, conspicuous; rachis flexuose; pseudobulb stipitate ...... 22. E. VOLUTUM ee. Bracts of the inflorescence concave to flat; rachis straight or inconspicuously flexuose. f. Callus of the lip a simple or bilobed cushion. g. Disc of the lip occupied by a central bibbed cushion- like callus; sepals and petals usually maculate ............... 9. E. CRASSILABIUM gg. Disc of the lip with a simple, basal, velutinous cushion- like callus; sepals and petals not maculate ............... E. IONOPHLEBIUM ff. Callus of the lip consisting of 2 or 3 basal keels or swellings....................................................................................... 7. E. COCHLEATUM aa. Lip 3-lobed or 3-lobulate. b. Column with a distinct lateral auricle on each side about opposite the stigms. c. Column more or less sharply recurved in the middle; veins of the mid-lobe of the lip smooth or nearly so .................................. 12. E. ONCIDOOIDES var. RAMONENSE cc. Column straight or nearly so; veins on the mid-lobe of lip often verruculose. d. Lateral lobes of the lip triangular-lanceolate to oblong ....12a. E. ONCIDIOIDES var. GRAVIDUM dd. Lateral lobes of the lip spatulate or oblong-spatulate ....... 12b. E. ONCIDIOIDES var. MOOREANUM bb. Column lacking distinct lateral auricles on either side of the stigma. c. Mid-lobe of lip proportionally narrower at base, linear-elongate or linear-filiform. d. Lateral lobes of lip fimbriate-ciliate ............. 6. E. CILIARE dd. Lateral lobes of lip entire to somewhat dentate----------------------------1 4. E. PARKINSONIANUM cc. Mid-lobe of lip proportionally broader at base, not linear-elongate or linear-filiform. d. Outer margins of mid-lobe of lip dentate to fimbriate 19. E. STAMFORDIANUM dd. Outer margins of mid-lobe of lip not dentate to fimbriate. e. Mid-lobe of the lip smaller than either lateral lobe or about equal to either of them. f. Floral bracts conspicuous, 14 mm. long or more. g. Lip 3-lobate; mid-lobe about as broad as long 22. E. VOLUTUM gg. Lip deeply 3-partite; mid-lobe oblanceolate, longer than broad .. .6a. E. CILIARE var. OERSTEDII ff. Floral bracts not very conspicuous, 10 mm. or less long. g. Mid-lobe of the lip triangular ............................................ 6. E. PYGMAEUM gg. Mid-lobe of the lip not triangular. h. Petals lesst than one-half as broad as the lateral sepals; inflorescence commonly basal ............................ 17. E. ROUSSEAUAE hh. Petals at most only slightly narrower than the sepals; inflorescence terminal 9. E. CRASSILABIUM ee. Mid-lobe of the lip considerably larger than each lateral lobe. f. Pseudobulbs 1-leaved. g. Base of the lip gradually narrowed below the lateral lobes; floral bracts large, chartaceous ............................5. E. CAMPYLOSTALIX gg. Base of the lip abruptly contracted below the lateral lobes; floral bracts, small ........................................12a. E. ONCIDIOIDES var. GRAVIDUM ff. Pseudobulbs 2- or more leaved. g. Pseudobulb contracted into a caulescent neck, 4-10 cm. long, separating the leaves from the swollen portion .........21. E. VARICOSUM gg. Pseudobulb not contracted into a caulescent neck, leaves almost sessile on the swollen portion. h. Mid-lobe of lip trulliform, acuminate -15. E. PRISMATOCARPUM hh. Mid-lobe of lip not trulliform nor acuminate. i. Middle clinandrial tooth at summit of column broad, erect, fleshy and quadrate or orbicular-quadrate, distinct from lateral teeth -8. E. CONDYLOCHILUM ii. Middle clinandrial tooth at summit of column small, deltoid, incurved, obtuse or acute, separated from lateral teeth by a shallow sinus. j. Area; of mid-lobe of lip about 4-10 times that of either lateral lobe, usually retuse or bilobed. k. Margin of mid-lobe of lip entire to erose-crenulate .......................... E. ATROPURPUREUM kk. Margin of mid-lobe of lip dentate-lacerate ...... 2a. E. ATROPURPUREUM var. LACINIATUM ii Area of mid-lobe of lip about 3 times that of either lateral lobe, or less. k. Column somewhat sharply recurved in the middle; veins of mid-lobe usually smooth ........ 12a. E. ONCIDIOIDES var. RAMONENSEkk. Column nearly straight; veins of mid-lobe of lip often verruculose. 1. Lateral lobes of lip spatulate to oblong .......... 12b. E. ONCIDIOIDES var. MOOREANUM 11. Lateral lobes of lip deltoid-lanceolate to ...................... 12a. E. ONCIDIOIDES var. GRAVIDUM Sect. II. BARKERIA One species in Panama ..................................................................... 23. E. STENOPETALUM Sect. III. EUEPIDENDRUM a. Leaves equitant. b. Flowers long-pedunculate and terminal .................................................. 43. E. EQUITANTIFOLIUM bb. Flowers sessile or nearly so and axillary ................................................ 50. E. LOCKHARTIOIDES aa. Leaves not equitant. b. Lip distinctly 3-lobed or 3-lobulate. c. Leaves terete, or subterete and sulcate, or flat and ligulate-linear. d. Mid-lobe of lip semicircular-triangular, apiculate .......... 65. E. PUDICUM dd. Mid-lobe, of lip elliptic to. narrowly oblong, provided with a prominent lamellate callus ............................................. 75. E. TERETIFOLIUM cc. Leaves flat and usually more than 3 mm. broad. d. Column with a distinct dorsal horn at the apex ............................ 51. E. MICRODENDRON dd. Column without a distinct dorsal horn at the apex., e. Mid-lobe of lip narrowly triangular to linear, several times longer than broad. f. Lateral lobes of the lip laciniate-fimbriate ...... 35. E. CRINIFERUM ff. Lateral lobes of the lip not laciniate-fimbriate. g. Inflorescence subtended by one or more large spathes .................. 54. E. OBESUM gg. Inflorescence usually not subtended by spathes; if so then by small inconspicuous ones ...................... 53. E. NOCTURNUM ee. Mid-lobe of the lip not narrowly triangular to linear. f. Lip tubular-involute, usually fleshy, in outline triangular to ovate-triangular, longer than broad ................ 72. E. ScULPTUM ff. Lip not tubular-involute, usually flat. g. Area of the mid-lobe of lip approximately twice that of either lateral lobe or even larger. h. Outer surface of lateral sepals verrucose ......................... 44. E. EXASPERATUM hh. Outer surface of the lateral sepals smooth. i. Apex of mid-lobe of lip rounded or protuberant- acute. j. Floral bracts large, cucullate, only slightly short- er than the flowers; inflorescence subcapitate with 1 flower appearing at a time ...................... 41. E. ELLIPSOPHYLLUM jj. Floral bracts small (or if large then much short- er than. the flowers), not cucullate; inflorescence not subcapitate and normally with several flowers at a time. k. Lateral lobes of the lip dentate to lacerate; inflorescence usually long-pedunculate ... 47. E. IMATOPHYLLUM kk. Lateral lobes of the lip not dentate nor lac- erate; inflorescence not long-pedunculate. 1. Lip spatulate, base of the mid-lobe broad and not unguiculate 79. E. WARSCEWICZII 11. Lip not spatulate, base of the mid-lobe with a narrowed or unguiculate base ....................... 38. E. DENTILOBUM ii. Apex of the mid-lobe of the lip truncate, retuse or bilobed, sometimes apiculate. j. Lateral lobes of lip digitate, lacerate or deeply dentate; sepals pink, not maculate .................. 27. E. CALIGARIUM jj. Lateral lobes of the lip entire to minutely crenu- late or crenate-dentate or bilobulate. k. Leaves obtuse ;Rnd minutely bilobed at the apex, usually ovate to elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate. 1. Inflorescence paniculate; sepals and petals maculate ...................71. E. SCHUMANNIANUM 11. Inflorescence racemose; sepals and petals not maculate ..................................... 42. E. ENDRESII kk. Leaves acute or acuminate, not bilobed at the apex, usually linear-lanceolate to lanceolate. 1. Lobules of the mid-lobe of Kip several times larger than the dentiform lateral lobes; in- florescence usually subumbellate or subcorym- bose ........................................... 29. E. CENTRADENIA 11. Lobules of the mid-lobe of the lip about equalling in size the oblong or falcate-lance- olate lateral lobes, or smaller; inflorescence usually racemose- 30. E. CENTROPETALUM gg. Area of mid-lobe of lip about equal to that of either lat- eral lobe or less. h. Ovary with a saccate vesicle at the summit .................. 58. E. PHYSODES hh. Ovary without a saccate vesicle at the summit. i. Column, when seen from the side, like an ox-bow... 39. E. DIFFORME ii. Column, when seen from the side, not like an ox- bow, at most somewhat arched. j. Inflorescence 1-flowered or subumbellate. k. Sepals narrowly lanceolate, long-acuminate; stems usually straight or nearly so; usually but 1 flower open at a time .............................. 40. E. EBURNEUM kk. Sepals broadly lanceolate to oblanceolate or obovate-oblong; stems flexuose. 1. Sepals more than 1 cm. broad; inflorescence, as far as known, 1-flowered ............................. 57. E. PENDENS 11. Sepals less than 0.8 cm. broad; inflorescence usually more than 1-flowered. m. Mid-lobe of lip, when present, twice or more broader than long, semi-elliptic to reniform ...................................... 39. E. DIFFORME mm. Mid-lobe of lip usually little broader than long; if as broad, subquadrate to sub- quadrate-ovate. n. Apex of the mid-lobe truncate, retuse or somewhat bilobed, usually apiculate ...... 39a. E. DIFFORME var. FIRMUM nn. Apex of the mid-lobe of the lip tri- angular, acute .......................................39b. E. DIFFORME var. SIMULACRUM jj. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate. k. Mid-lobe of the lip not bilobed nor retuse. 1. Inflorescence a dense spike-like raceme which is more or less arcuate; leaves linear-lanceo- late ............................62. E. POWELLII 11. Inflorescence not a dense spike-like raceme; leaves elliptic to lanceolate or oblanceolate. m. Summit of column with a denticulate, sometimes 4-lobed wing ................. 40. E. EBURNEUM mm. Summit of the column wingless. n. Lip up to about 8.5 mm. broad; stems simple- ............. ... .......,,, 25. E. ANCEPS nn. Lip 12 mm. or more broad; stems branched ..................................... 48. E. INCOMPTUM kk. Mid-lobe of the lip bilobed or retuse. 1. Margins of lateral lobes of lips digitate, lac- erate, or dentate. m. Peduncle elongated, with close, scarious tubular sheaths and with the flowers in dense racemes or sometimes paniculate; stems usually rooting opposite the leaves..46. E. IBAGUENSE mm. Peduncles not much elongated or if so the sheaths spreading, foliaceous or im- bricated; stems not bearing roots opposite the leaves. n. Mid-lobe of the lip with two strongly explanate lobules ................................. 56. E. PANICULATUM nn. Mid-lobe of the lip with the lobules more or less porrect, never strongly explanate. o. Lateral sepals 7-16 mm. long ...................60. E. POLYANTHUM oo. Lateral sepals 4-6.5 mm. long ................60a. E. POLYANTHUM var. MYODES 11. Margins of lateral lobes of lip not digitate, lacerate, nor dentate, sometimes crenate, undulate, or asymmetrically bilobed. m. Spread between the tips of the divaricate lob-ales of the mid-lobe of the lip about twice or more greater than the length of the lobes ............................. 74. E. SUBNUTANS mm. Spread between the tips of the more or less porrect lobules of the mid-lobe of lip or breadth of the mid-lobe less than twice the length. n. Lip 2 cm. or more broad; raceme usually elongated and more than 6 cm. in diameter..................... 52. E. MOYOBAMBAE nn. Lip 1.5 cm. or less broad. o. Pair of basal calluses of the lip absent; peduncle usually elongated .......... 25. E. ANCEPS oo. Pair of basal calluses of the lip present. p. Peduncle conspicuously winged and ancipitous .................... 24. E. ALLENII pp. Peduncle not winged and ancipitous. q. Lateral sepals 6.5-16 mm. long.................. 60. E. POLYANTHUM qq. Lateral sepals 4-6.5 mm. long ................. 60a. E. POLYANTHUM var. MYODES bb. Lip simple, obscurely lobate or bilobed. c. Lower portion of lateral margins of lip irregularly lacerate to coarsely Identate; lamina with a prominent central keel extending almost to the apex ........ 47. E. IMATOPHYLLUM cc. Lower portion of. lateral margins, of lip neither lacerate nor coarsely dentate. d. Leaf-blade not articulated to the sheath, thus not deciduous. e. Plants elongated and creeping; lateral sepals without a keel on the outer surface ..................... 3 2. E. CONFERTUM ee. Plants not elongated and creeping; lateral sepals keeled on the outer surface. f. Lip cordate-ovate, acute; clinandrium entire or denticulate ..........33. E. CONGESTUM ff. Lip reniform-suborbicular, apiculate; clinandrium lacerate ..................... 70. E. SCHLECHTERIANUM dd. Leaf-blade articulated to the sheath, thus deciduous. e. Ovary with a more or less semiglobose vesicle at the summit just under the lip. f. Anterior portion of the lamina of lip broadly rounded. g. Leaves triangular-lanceolate or narrower, scattered along the stem; lip not strongly conduplicate ................. 58. E. PHYSODES gg. Leaves elliptic to elliptic-oblong, congested on the upper part of the stem; lip strongly conduplicate ........ 28. E. CAROLII ff. Anterior portion of the lamina of the lip acute or acuminate ............................................. 73. E. STROBILIFERUM ee. Ovary without a semiglobose vesicle at the summit. f. Back of the column terminating in a distinct, more or less spreading horn . ............................. ............... 51. E. MICRODENDRON ff. Back of the column not terminating in a distinct spreading horn. g. Lip with a tridentate (not tricarinate) or V-shaped callus at or near the base of the lamina. h. Leaves usually sulcate, terete or subterete, if flattened then very narrowly linear-lanceolate, often grass-like and acuminate ...................49. E. ISOMERUM hh. Leaves flat or at most conduplicate, ligulate or linear- oblong to lorate, or lanceolate to nearly elliptic, ob- tuse, bilobate. i. Lamina of the lip suborbicular-cordate, commonly broader than long5............................................. .... 59. E. PLATYSTIGMA ii. Lamina of the lip triangular to ovate-triangular, usually longer than broad. ;. Margins of the lip very fleshy and thickened - 69. E. SANCHOII jj. Margins of the lip not fleshy and thickened. k. Stems slender, usually 4 mm. or less in diam- eter below the inflorescence; leaf-sheaths and bracts not maculate; inflorescence usually lax and narrow ................................................. . 66. E. RAMOSUM kk. Stems thicker, usually 5-6 mm. in diameter just below the inflorescence; leaf -sheaths and bracts usually finely maculate; inflorescenice typically rather congested and broad ......................... 66a. E. RAMOSUM var. ANGUSTIFOLIUM gg. Lip never with a tridentate or V-shaped callus at or near the base of the lamina. h. Lamina of the lip triangular with a truncate base; inflorescence 1-flowered-- 78. E. TRIANGULABIUM hh. Lamina of the lip never triangular with a truncate base. i. Entire length of column adnate to base of lateral sepals ...............61. E. PORPAX ii. Entire length of column not adnate to the base of the lateral sepals. j. Stems branched. k. Lip callus-bearing. 1. Glinandrium lacerate-dentate; lateral sepals falcate and acuminate; plant dwarf ................ 37. E. DENTIFERUM 11. Clinandrium not lacerate-dentate; lateral sepals not falcate. m. Floral bracts very conspicuous, large and broad ........................................ . 31. E. COCLEENSE mm. Floral bracts not conspicuous, small and usually narrow. n. Disc of lip bearing more or less lobate or retuse calluses, usually situated well above the base ................ 77. E. TRACHYTHECE nn. Disc of the lip not bearing more or less lobate or retuse calluses. o. Clinandrium with 4 subrectangular petaloid lobes, the central pair longest and narrowest .................................. 76. E. TETRACEROS oo. Clinandrium lacking 4 lobes ..................... 26. E. BiSULCATUM kk. Lip ecallose (mid-nerve sometimes thickened). 1. Inflorescence 1-flowered ..........................67. E. REPENS 11. Inflorescence 2- or more flowered. m. Leaves less than 1 cm. broad, linear to linear-oblong ..........69. E. SANCHOII mm. Leaves more than 1 cm. broad, elliptic to elliptic-ovate .............. 36. E. CRYPTANTHUM jj. Stems unbranched. k. Floral bracts conspicuous due to their size compared to the flower, or to their distinct spreading character. l. Lamina of the, lip broader than long, reni- form, bilobed or retuse ...................................... 34. E. CORIIFOLIUM ll. Lamina of the lip longer than broad or at most very slightly broader than long. m. Flowers clustered at the end of a long naked peduncle. n. Peduncle conspicuously winged and an- cipitous ........................ 24. E. ALLENII nn. Peduncle not conspicuously winged and ancipitous .................55. E. PANAMENSE mm. Flowers not clustered at the end of a long naked peduncle. n. Lamina of the lip cordate-orbicular, about as long as broad .................... 68. E. RIGIDUM nn. Lamina of the lip oblong-ovate, longer than broad. ............ 68a. E. RIGIDUM var. ANGUSTISEGMENTUM kk. Floral bracts not conspicuous. l. Inflorescence 1-flowered or subumbellate. m. Lateral sepals narrowly lanceolate, long- acuminate; leaf-sheaths not dilated toward their summits; usually 1 flower open at a time; lip white ......... 40. E. EBURNEUM mm. Lateral sepals broadly lanceolate or ob- lanceolate to elliptic-oblong or ovate- oblong; leaf-sheaths dilated toward their summits. n. Leaves semiterete and sulcate, linear- oblong ................... 65. E. PUDICUM nn. Leaves flat or conduplicate, usually ligulate to elliptic. o. Leaf-sheaths strongly cuneate (viewed laterally), large and flaring, the folded sheath 2 cm. broad at junction with leaf; leaves strongly conduplicate, 2 cm. broad when folded ........... 45. E. HUNTERIANUM oo. Leaf-sheaths not broadly flaring, the folded sheaths less than 1 cm. broad at junction with the leaf; leaves more or less flat, usually not strongly con- duplicate, when so, less than 1 cm. broad when folded. p. Lamina of the lip distinctly broad- er than long, reniform to trans- versely oval - 39. E. DIFFORME pp. Lamina of the lip about as broad as long, suborbicular-cordate ............... 39b. E. DIFFORME var. SIMULACRUM ll. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate, mostly 3- or more flowered. m. Lateral sepals 22 mm. or more long. n. Lateral sepals narrowly lanceolate, long- acuminate; lip subentire, white ..................... 40. E. EBURNEUM nn. Lateral sepals narrowly spatulate-oblance- olate, acute or obtuse; lip denticulate or crenate-dentate, orange-vermillion ....................... 64. E. PSEUDEPIDENDRUM mm. Lateral sepals 16 mm. or less long. n. Lip conduplicate; peduncle elongated; raceme elongated and narrow. O. Apex of the lip broadly rounded and retuse-apiculate; lateral sepals with a dorsal keel toward the apex..............28. E. CAROLII oo. Apex of the lip short-acuminate; lat- eral sepals without a dorsal keel ............. 63. E. PROBIFLORUM nn. Lip not conduplicate, flat or at most somewhat convex...........................25. E. ANCEPS
 
 
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