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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 660. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: About 100 species, chiefly Eurasian; only 15 species (incl. 1 cultivated) recorded from our area.
Comment/Acknowledgements: A difficult genus due to highly variable nature of several of its species. A year old plant may look like an annual and may sometimes confuse the identification of its perennial species. However it is a very natural genus and one of the largest in the family for our area.


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Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, sometimes woody at base and shrubby, branched mostly from below, pubescent with 2-4-partite, appressed hairs, rarely stellately hairy, usually rough; stem usually very leafy, ± tetragonate or terete. Leaves simple, entire to pinnatifid, stalked to sessile, usually broadly linear to elliptic, often with triangulate teeth. Racemes usually many flowered, corymbose, elongated in fruit. Flowers usually medium sized and yellow or orange, pedicellate; pedicels often short and thickened in fruit, ascending or spreading. Sepals erect, inner ± saccate at base. Petals usually twice as long as the sepals, long-clawed. Stamens 6; filaments not appendaged; anthers linear-oblong. Lateral nectar glands annular or semiannular; middle glands short, not joining the laterals, often 2-3 lobed. Ovary linear-terete, pubescent, many ovuled; style short with a ± bilobed, capitate stigma. Siliquae often elongated, ± tetragonate or terete, pubescent; valves with a distinct mid-vein or rib; septum membranous, often rigid, not veined; seeds many, uniseriate, oblong, often subangular.

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1 Annual herbs (2)
+ Biennial, perennial or shrubby herbs (4)
2 (1) Siliquae with 2-3-partite, appressed hairs (3)
+ Siliquae with 2-partite, appressed hairs (rarely hairs 3-partite) Erysimum sisymbrioides
3 (2) Siliquae elongated, 40-60 mm long with 5-10 mm long, spreading pedicels; racemes ebracteate (sometimes leafy but flowers not bracteate) Erysimum repandum
+ Siliquae short, 15-20 (-30) mm long with 1-2 mm long ascending pedicels; racemes often leafy or bracteate. Erysimum griffithianum
4 (1) Hairs stellate, 5-7-parted; stem glabrous, glaucous, somewhat yellowish (5)
+ Hairs 2-4-partite appressed; stem neither glabrous nor yellowish (6)
5 (4) Stem branched from its middle; petals (10-) 15-20 mm long Erysimum crassicaule
+ Stem branched from the base; petals c. 8(-10) mm long Erysimum stocksianum
6 (4) Hairs mostly 2-partite, appressed (7)
+ Hairs 2-4-partite, appressed (12)
7 (6) Flowers small, 5-6 mm across; petals 1.5-2.5 mm broad (8)
+ Flowers large, 10-15 mm across; petals 4-9 mm broad (9)
8 (7) Siliquae 15-25 mm long. Plants shrubby whitish in appearance Erysimum erosum
+ Siliquae 45-90 mm long. Plants perennial, greenish in appearance Erysimum thomsonii
9 (7) Siliquae ± erect with stigma on 2-3 mm long style; pedicels up to 15 mm long, not thickened in fruit (10)
+ Siliquae ± horizontally spreading with subsessile stigma; pedicels short, up to 5 mm long and thick, stout in fruit Erysimum aitchisonii
10 (9) Biennial; stem simple rarely branched; leaves oblanceolate or oblong-elliptic, 5-12 mm broad (11)
+ Perennial, much branched from the base; leaves narrowly linear, 1-3 mm broad 8 Erysimum altaicum
11 (10) Petals 6.9 mm broad; pedicels 10-15 mm long in fruit Erysimum melicentae
+ Petals 4-5 mm broad; pedicels 5-7 mm long in fruit Erysimum perofskianum
12 (6) Plants usually tall, 30-90 cm in fruit; cauline leaves many (13)
+ Plants small 5-10 cm tall in fruit; cauline leaves few (2-3 usually). Erysimum schlagintweitianum
13 (12) Siliquae c. 1.5 (-2) mm broad, linearterete with faint or not so prominent mid-rib on the valve (14)
+ Siliquae c. 2.5 mm broad, terete linearoblong with a conspicuous mid-rib on the valve 6 Erysimum cachemiricum
14 (13) Pedicels 5-10 mm long in fruit; siliquae 40-60 mm long, 1.5-2 mm broad. Radical leaves oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, ± dentate (rarely subentire or entire) Erysimum hieraciifolium
+ Pedicels 1-3 mm long in fruit; siliquae c. 30 mm long, 1 mm broad. Radical leaves narrowly oblanceolate, entire Erysimum persepolitanum
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