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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/27/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 9/27/2013)
Contributor John D. Dwyer & W. G. D'Arcy
PlaceOfPublication Sp. P1. 706. 1753
Note TYPE: E. herbacea L.
Synonym Micropteryx Walp., Linnaea 23: 739. 1850. LECTOTYPE: M. poeppigiana Walp. = Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) 0. F. Cook. Duchassaingia Walp., Linnaea 23: 741. 1850. LECTOTYPE: D. glauca Walp. = Erythrina fusca Lour.
Description Trees or shrubs, usually armed. Leaves alternate, pinnately 3-foliate, the leaflets large, the terminal leaflet usually larger than the laterals, the lateral leaflets usually inequilateral; stipels small; stipules minute, caducous. Inflorescence ax- illary or terminal; flowers numerous, disposed laterally in pseudoracemes; pe- duncles usually spineless; pedicels thickened distally. Flowers large; calyx in- equilaterally campanulate or tubular, the margin subentire, lobed or vaguely toothed; standard often large, short or long clawed, thick, greatly exceeding the keel, the keel petals often coherent along the lower margin, apically glabrous; stamens 10, monadelphous or diadelphous with 9 stamens alternating long and short, the anthers versatile; ovary stipitate, fusiform, somewhat curved, the style slender, elongate, incurved, glabrous, the stigma capitate. Legumes stipitate, linear oblong, often moniliform, mostly constricted between the seeds, dehiscent, often twisted at maturity; seeds several, ellipsoidal, colored, the hilum lateral. Erythrina includes about 108 species in tropical and subtropical areas of Old and New Worlds. It is distinguished from other Panamanian Papilionatae by its woody habit, red or orange flowers, by the wing petals being much smaller than the keel, and by the elongate stipe below the ovary.
Habit Trees or shrubs
Note The genus has been intensively studied for many years by B. A. Krukoff, New York Botanical Garden, and this treatment relies heavily on his published works and annotations on herbarium sheets. In addition, Mr. Krukoff supplied copious notes and advice which helped form a basis for this treatment. The key to species is modified from Krukoff's key. Krukoff (1939) recognized 10 Species Groups in the New World Erythrina, but later Krukoff and Barnaby (1974) reorganized Erythrina on a worldwide basis, recognizing 5 subgenera and 26 sections. Two subgenera, Micropteryx and Er- ythrina occur in Panama, the first with sects. Micropteryx and Duchassaingia, and the second with sects. Edules, Erythrina, and Gibbosae. Section Cristae- Galli Krukoff (Subgenus Micropteryx) is introduced. Flowers and fruits of all species of Erythrina were well illustrated by Krukoff and Barnaby (1974), and reference to these illustrations can be an aid in deter- mining the plants.
Reference Games, D. E., A. H. Jackson, N. A. Khan & D. S. Millington. 1974. Alkaloids of some African, Asian, Polynesian and Australian species of Erythrina. Lloy- dia 37: 581-588. Graham, A. & A. S. Tomb. 1974. Palynology of Erythrina (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae): Preliminary survey of the subgenera. Lloydia 37: 465-481. Hargreaves, R. T., R. D. Johnston, D. S. Millington, M. H. Mondal, W. Beavers, L. Becker, C. Young & K. L. Rinehart, Jr. 1974. Alkaloids of American species of Erythrina. Lloydia 37: 569-580. Krukoff, B. A. 1939. The American species of Erythrina. Brittonia 3: 205-337. Krukoff, B.A. & R. C. Barnaby. 1974. Conspectus of the genus Erythrina. Lloydia 37: 332-459. Lewis, W. H. 1974. Chromosomes and phylogeny of Erythrina (Fabaceae). Lloydia 37: 460-464. Raven, P. H. 1974. Erythrina (Fabaceae): Achievements and opportunities. Lloydia 37: 321-331. Romeo, J. T. & E. A. Bell. 1974. Distribution of amino acids and certain alkaloids in Erythrina species. Lloydia 37: 543-568. Toledo, V. M. 1974. Observations on the relationship between hummingbirds and Erythrina species. Lloydia 37: 482-487.
Key a. Seeds dark brown or black; calyx mostly campanulate; introduced and native species. b. Seeds 25-35 mm long, soft, drying wrinkled ...... 5. E. edulis bb. Seeds 12-19 mm long, hard, drying smooth. c. Leaflets mostly blunt tipped; wing petals about ?2 as long as the keel ......  6. E. fusca cc. Leaflets mostly sharp tipped; wing petals minute, less than 1/3 as long as the keel. d. Pod papery; stipels forming stalked cups 1-4 mm long ...... 9. E. poeppigiana dd. Pod leathery or woody; stipels less than 0.5 mm long, not forming stalked cups ...... 4. E. crista-galli aa. Seeds red; calyx mostly tubular campanulate; native species. e. Calyx truncate but with a conspicuous bulge on the ventral side just below the rim ...... 7. E. gibbosa ee. Calyx 1 or 2 toothed (lobed), lacking a bulge on the side. f. Seeds less than 10 mm long; leaflets as broad or broader than long, blunt tipped (sometimes short acuminate) ...... 1. E. berteroana ff. Seeds more than 10 mm long; leaflets longer than broad, sharp pointed. g. Pod persistently pubescent, at least between the seeds (lens may be needed). h. Keel petals united by outer margins; calyx at least twice as long as wide ...... 3. E. costaricensis hh. Keel petals free; calyx less than 1/2 as long as wide ...... 8. E. lanceolata gg. Pod glabrous at maturity. i. Calyx with 2 subequal lips ...... 2. E. chiriquensis ii. Calyx with 1 lip forming a pronounced beak ...... 10. E. rubrinervia
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