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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/31/2012)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 10/31/2012)
Species PHILODENDRON Schott
PlaceOfPublication Wien. Zeitschr. Kunst 3:780. 1829.
Description Plants usually epiphytic and scandent, the internodes mostly elongate, the nodes often emitting roots; petioles short or elongate, rarely geniculate near the apex, vaginate for part or all their length; blades herbaceous or more or less coria- ceous, very variable in form, sometimes lobed or parted, the lateral nerves all parallel and equal, or the primary ones often stouter than the secondary; peduncles generally short; spathes succulent, mostly whitish, yellowish, or red, the tube con- volute, cylindric or ventricose, persistent, the blade cymbiform, ovate to lanceolate, commonly erect and after fecundation reconvolute, persistent in fruit; spadix almost equaling the spathe, sessile or short-stipitate, the pistillate portion cylindric, densely many-flowered, juicy in fruit, the staminate portion sterile, below, fertile above for most of its length, finally drooping in fruit; flowers. unisexual, naked; stamens of the staminate flower 2-6, sessile, obpyramidal-prismatic, truncate at the apex, the anther cells oblong or linear, emarginate at the base, opening by a short slit; ovary of the pistillate flower obovoid or ovoid, 2- to several-celled; ovules orthotropous or half-anatropous, ascending on rather long funicles, few or numerous; stigma sessile, hemispheric or sometimes lobulate; fruits baccate, densely crowded; seeds rather numerous, few, or only 1, ovoid-oblong or ellipsoid, straight, the testa rather thick, striate-costate; endosperm present.
Note The second-largest American genus of Araceae, with 200 or more species. They are distributed over most of tropical America, but are most numerous in the Andean region. About 28 species are known from Central America. Plants of this genus constitute a large and conspicuous element of the epiphytic vegetation of the Panama lowlands. The leaves of many species are handsome and attractive. Various species of Philodendron may be seen commonly in northern greenhouses, and a few are cultivated as house plants.
Key a. Leaf blades lobed or variously parted. b. Leaves 3-parted, the segments oblong, entire - 1. P. TRIPARTITUM bb. Leaves pinnatifid, with numerous narrow lobes_ - 2. P. RADIATUM aa. Leaf blades entire. b. Leaves deltoid-cordate, rounded-cordate, oblong-cordate, or sagittate- cordate, deeply cordate at the base, with a broad or narrow sinus and well-developed posterior lobes. c. Petioles glabrous. d. Basal sinus of the leaves very broad and open, much wider than long, the basal lobes slightly spreading outward. Blades large, mostly 30-50 cm. long or larger, the primary lateral nerves much stouter than the secondary ones - --- -- 3. P. PANAMENSE dd. Basal sinus of the leaves deep and narrow, normally much long- er than broad, the basal lobes directed downward or even slightly inward. e. Primary lateral nerves of the leaves little or not at all stouter than the parallel secondary ones; blades large and thin, mostly more than 3 0 cm. long _ _ 4. P. GRANDIPES ee. Primary lateral nerves of the leaves conspicuously stouter and more prominent than the secondary ones; blades mostly less than 25 cm. long. f. Leaves thin when dried, oblong-cordate; spathes 6-7.5 cm. long 5. P. BREVISPATHUM ff. Leaves thick and rather coriaceous when dried, broadly cordate or rounded-cordate; spathes about 12 cm. long. g. Basal sinus broadly obtuse; primary lateral nerves of the leaves 4-5 on each side _ 6. P. HOFFMANNII gg. Basal sinus acute; primary lateral nerves of the leaves about 10 on each side - -- 7. P. BRENESII cc. Petioles covered with long, soft, hair-like setae - - 8. P. VERRUCOSUM bb. Leaves various in shape but never cordate 'or sagittate, acute to rounded at the base or, if shallowly cordate, oblong and without evident basal lobes. c. Leaf blades evidently cordate at the base or rarely rounded (in juvenile leaves), usually broadest above the middle -9. P. WENDLANDII cc. Leaf brades truncate to acute at the base, broadest at or below the middle. d. Sheath of the petiole ending far below the base of the blade. Leaf blades elliptic-oblong, usually narrowed to the base, this (455) [VOL. 31 52 ANNALS OF THE MISSOURI BOTANICAL GARDEN often subacute but sometimes broadly rounded --- 10. P. KARSTENIANUM dd. Sheath of the petiole extending nearly or quite to the base of the blade. e. Primary lateral nerves of the leaves much stouter and more conspicuous than the secondary ones; leaf blades large, usually 25-35 cm. long or more- 11. P. COERULESCENS ee. Primary lateral nerves of the leaves little stouter or more con- spicuous than the secondary ones; leaf blades mostly 20 cm. long or less --- 12. P. GUTTIFERUM
 
 
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