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Published In: De Euphorbiacearum Generibus Medicisque earumdem viribus tentamen, tabulis aeneis 18 illustratum 27. 1824. (Euphorb. Gen.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: A. RADCLIFFE-SMITH
General/Distribution: Mediterranean, Africa, S.W. & C. Asia. Authorities disagree on the number of species: Mueller (1866) has 6, Pax (1912) has 9, of which 1 is new and 2 resurrected, Prain (1918) has 11, of which 3 are resurrected from Pax and Pax’s new species is sunk. Willis (1966, 1973) gives 12 species. As with all natural groups, they tend to be difficult at the next level down. In Pakistan, there appear to be 4 species.


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Monoecious annual or perennial herbs or shrubs. Indumentum stellate. Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, simple, subentire, repand-dentate or sublobate, penni-, subtripli- or palminerved, often plicate or bullate when young, with 2 glands at the base of the blade. Inflorescences pseudoaxillary, supra--axillary, lateral or ± leaf-opposed, spicate, racemose or subpaniculate, distally ♂, proximally ♀. Male flowers solitary to their bracts; pedicels short; calyx closed in bud, splitting into 5 valvate lobes; petals 5, distally imbricate and coherent; disc 5-lobed, the lobes alternating with the petals; stamens 3-15, filaments connate into a column, anthers 1-3-seriate, oblong, erect, longitudinally dehiscent: pistillode 0. Female flowers borne on 1-4-flowered peduncles; pedicels long, often elongating and reflexing in fruit; sepals 5, open in bud; petals 5, smaller than in the ♂, or 0; disc ± as in the ♂; ovary 3-celled, with 1 ovule per cell; styles 3, connate at the base, ± erect, bifid. Fruit schizocarpic, leaving a columella; endocarp thinly woody. Seeds usually smooth, ecarunculate but enveloped in a thin pale shiny aril; albumen thick, fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

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1 Fruits stellate-pubescent, sometimes also with some fimbriate peltate scales (2)
+ Fruits lepidote; stamens 3-12 (3)
2 (1) Young leaves shallowly-bullate or flat above; stamens 5; some fimbriate peltate scales on the fruit with the stellate hairs 1 Chrozophora sabulosa
+ Young leaves plicate above; stamens 15; only stellate hairs present on the fruit 2 Chrozophora plicata
3 (1) Shrubs, subshrubs or woody herbs; leaves more than twice as long as broad; petioles not more than 4 cm long; fruits bluish-purple 4 Chrozophora oblongifolia
+ Herbs; leaves occasionally more than twice as long as broad, usually less; petioles up to 10 cm long; fruits reddish-purple 3 Chrozophora tinctoria
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