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Published In: Familles des Plantes 2: 504. 1763. (Fam. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library


Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: SAOOD OMER
General/Distribution: A genus of 200-300 species, distributed in cold and alpine regions of both the hemispheres. In Pakistan, represented by 10 species, distributed in N.W. Pakistan (Chitral, Gilgit, Baltistan, Hazara, Potohar, and N.W.F.P.) and Kashmir.


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Annuals (rarely perennials), herbs, mostly forming branched creeping mats with several shoots from rootstock. Leaves basal and cauline; arranged variously: mostly imbricately arranged on shoots, sometimes not so in opposite phyllotaxy, pedicellate or sessile or subsessile; variously shaped: linear, lanceolate, elliptic, ovate, obovate, oblanceolate; basal leaves usually longer than cauline leaves, lax - densely rosulate. Inflorescence a raceme, fascicles or cymes. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, 4-5 (-9) merous. Calyx divided, united at base, lobes joined by an inner membrane or inner membrane absent, tube cons icuous, persistent. Corolla campanulate to infundibuliform or hypocraetiform, mostly in shades of blue, violet, purple, reddish, pink, yellow, cream or white; provided with subsidiary lobes or plicate, plicae smaller than and alternating with corolla lobes; corolla throat naked inside i.e. fimbriae absent. Anther corresponding with the number of petals. Anthers as a rule basifixed with filaments inserted deep into corolla tube and alternate to corolla lobes or opposing the subsidiary lobes (plicae). Ovary superior, unilocular, placentation parietal, style short or absent, stigmas two, persistent, mostly coiled. Nectaries present at the base of the ovary. Capsule elliptic-oblong, long or short stalked or subsessile, dehiscing septicidally from apex. Seeds brownish or dark brownish, ellipsoidal, ovate or rounded, reticulate.

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1 Stamens apiculate. Dark coloured spots at the base of calyx tube 8 Ciminalis baltistanica
+ Stamens not apiculate. No spots at the base of calyx tube (2)
2 (1) Plants glandularly pubescent, at least the stem (3)
+ Plants completely glabrous, rarely puberulent, but never glandular (4)
3 (2) Flowers in fascicles. Calyx lobes minute, margin cartilaginous. Plicae crenulate 10 Ciminalis capitata
+ Flowers solitary. Calyx lobes mucronate, white margined. Plicae bibbed 9 Ciminalis squarrosa
4 (2) Calyx lobes membranous 4 Ciminalis harwanensis
+ Calyx lobes cartilaginous (5)
5 (4) Flowers in terminal fascicles, campanulate (6)
+ Flowers solitary, infundibular-tubular (9)
6 (5) Plicae bilobed, obovate 6 Ciminalis pseudoaquatica
+ Plicae unilobed, lanceolate (7)
7 (6) Plants branched from middle or above. Leaves broadly ovate-spathulate or orbicular 3 Ciminalis riparia
+ Plants branched from base. Leaves ovate-obovate (spathulate) (8)
8 (7) Leaves imbricately arranged. Plants not fleshy 5 Ciminalis karelinii
+ Leaves lax. Plants fleshy 2 Ciminalis prostrata
9 (5) Plicae unilobed. Flowers up to 1.5 cm long, corolla lobes lanceolate. Basal leaves obtuse subacute 1 Ciminalis aquatica
+ Plicae bibbed. Flowers up to 1.0 cm long, corolla lobes ovate-obovate. Basal leaves acuminate
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