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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 172. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 4/30/2015)
Acceptance : Accepted
Note : Belongs to Tribe Cinchoneae
Project Data     (Last Modified On 5/13/2014)
Notes:

The genus Cinchona is classified in the Tribe Cinchoneae, and includes at least 23 species of trees and shrubs that are native to the Andes of South America and the mountains of southern Central America. The trees have showy white, pink, or purple flowers that are generally pollinated by butterflies and hummingbirds, and dry capsular fruits with flat, papery seeds that disperse on the wind. Most of the species are found in the Andes and adjacent lowlands of Ecuador and Peru, and most have rather restricted ranges. Cinchona pubescens has the broadest natural range and has been cultivated in other areas; in continental regions it spreads little beyond cultivation, but in the Galapagos and some other tropical islands it has become an invasive weed.

The bark of several species of Cinchona has been the source for some centuries of the febrifuge chemical quinine, effective against malaria. In the Andes the bark has been widely harvested from wild Cinchona trees, which has reduced their populations. Several species and numerous hybrids have been cultivated in warm humid regions world wide, particularly India and southeastern Asia. Commercially useful quantities of quinine are found in the bark of only two main species, C. pubescens, which has sometimes been cultivated under the name C. succirubra, and C. calisaya. Cinchona calisaya has sometimes been cultivated under the name C. ledgeriana and has also been sometimes confused with C. officinalis, however C. officinalis is a separate species found the Andes of southern Ecuador that does not contain quinine in its bark. Some other Rubiaceae also produce quinine and are used locally as malaria remedies, for example Hintonia and perhaps Coutarea in Mexico and northern Central America. Trees of Cinchona are also prized for their good wood.

The flowers are diurnal, and white, pink, or purple and generally very hairy or fuzzy in the mouth of the corolla tube. They are apparently pollinated mainly by butterflies and hummingbirds. The flowers are distylous: some plants have only flowers of the long-styled ("pin" form), with the stigma positioned at the top of the corolla tube and the anthers positioned below, inside the tube; other plants have short-styled flowers ("thrum" form) with the reciprocal or opposite arrangement, with the anthers positioned at the top of the corolla tube and the stigmas below, inside the tube. This reciprocal arrangement is believed to promote out-crossing and diminish pollination by the same flower form, by depositing pollen on different parts of the pollinator so that the pollen from the short-styled flowers is transferred to the stigmas of the long-styled flowers, and vice versa. In general the distylous type of flower also has incompatibility at the cellular level, so the pollen of long-styled flowers generally has a very low success rate in other long-styled flowers, and vice versa. The fruits are dry, rather woody capsules that open to release numerous small, papery, flattened seeds that are dispersed by the wind.

Cinchona is notable within the Rubiaceae at least for its ability to hybridize, and as noted by Andersson (1998) in some areas where two species' ranges connect, the boundaries between the species are not entirely clear due to hybrid swarms of plants with intermediate conditions. Many commercially grown plants of Cinchona are of hybrid origin and thus do not correspond to any wild or named species.

Cinchona has been confused with the related Rubiaceae genus Ladenbergia. In fact the separation of these was not clear for many years, but Andersson (1998) showed that species of Cinchona have white, pink, or purple flowers that open during the day and are hairy or fuzzy at the top of the tube and on the lobes, while Ladenbergia has bright white flowers that open during the night, and are not hairy or fuzzy at the top. Otherwise these two groups are difficult to separate. Previously they were sometimes separated by their fruits, which supposedly opened from the bottom in Cinchona vs. from the top in Ladenbergia, but Andersson showed that in fact the pattern of opening varies within both genera so this distinction does not actually work.

Many species of Cinchona are uncommon today, and several are formally considered threatened. The trees are found in well preserved, usually isolated montane forests, although most of them seem to grow in disturbed areas as well when they are not cut down. Cinchona populations have been significantly reduced or extirpated by human exploitation, both harvesting the bark and taking whole trees for their good wood. In general folk taxonomy the "cascarilla" or "quina" tree is still considered fairly common in the Andes, but usually the plants identified with these names today are Ladenbergia oblongifolia, a common species found widely in secondary vegetation, or Elaeagia and varous other species of Rubiaceae with well developed ligulate stipules that are held erect in bud. Ladenbergia oblongifolia does have some bitter alkaloids in its bark, but these are produced in very low quantity and this species is not a useful source of quinine. However Ladenbergia oblongifolia is today starting to be cultivated as Cinchona due to lack of botanical knowledge and, apparently, a shift in the folk taxonomy as younger generations no longer see the true Cinchona species.

Author: C.M. Taylor.
The content of this web page was last revised on 4 May 2014.
Taylor web page: http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/curators/taylor.shtml

 

Distribution: Native from mountains of northern Costa Rica to northeastern Venezuela and to Bolivia, from sea level to tree line but most of the species found in montane forests, above 1500 m elevation; and at least one species naturalized and weedy on some tropical islands.
References:
Synonyms:

The following list is based on ongoing study, and is intended to facilite work on this genus. This list includes the species and names that have so far been studied.
Note: Synonymous names are listed here without links, and with their equivalents; accepted names are listed in the next section of this webpage, with links to additional data.
Note: For each accepted species name linked below, clicking will lead to the Rubiaceae Project data page. To then see the standard TROPICOS Name page directly from that page, go to the upper right of the screen and under "Project", choose "TROPICOS".

Cascarilla hookeriana Wedd. = Ladenbergia muzonensis (Goudot) Standl.
Cinchona academica Guibourt = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona acuminata (Ruiz & Pav.) Poir. = Hillia parasitica Jacq.
Cinchona acutifolia Ruiz & Pav. = Ladenbergia acutifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Klotzsch
Cinchona afroinda Willem = Danais fragrans (Lam.) Pers.
Cinchona amazonica Standl. = Cinchonopsis amazonica (Standl.) L.Andersson
Cinchona amygdalifolia Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona angustifolia Ruiz = Cinchona lancifolia
Cinchona angustifolia Sw. = Exostema angustifolium (Sw.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona australis Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona australis (A. St.-Hil.) Brign. = Bathysa australis (A. St.-Hil.) Benth. & Hook.f.
Cinchona bergeniana Mart. = Remijia firmula (Mart.) Wedd.
Cinchona bicolor (Poepp. & Endl.) Brign. = Exostema corymbosum (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
Cinchona bogoensis Mutis, identity unclear
Cinchona bogotensis H. Karst. = Ladenbergia heterophylla (Wedd.) Standl.
Cinchona bonplandiana Klotzsch = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona brachycarpa Sw. = Exostema brachycarpum (Sw.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona brachycarpa W. Wright = Exostema sp. (fide Andersson 1998)
Cinchona brasiliensis Hoffmanns. ex Rumb. = Machaonia brasiliensis (Hoffmanns. ex Humb.) Cham. & Schltdl.
Cinchona caducifolia Humb. & Bonpl. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona calisaya var. boliviana Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona calisaya var. josephiana Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona calisaya var. ledgeriana Howard = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona calisaya var. microcarpa Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona calisaya var. oblongifolia Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona calisaya var. vera (Wedd.) Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona caloptera Miq. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona candollei G. Don = Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil.) DC.
Cinchona canescens (DC.) Brign. = Exostema sp.
Cinchona capensis Burman ex DC. = Burchellia capensis (DC.) R. Br.
Cinchona capitata (Spreng.) Brign. = Exostema sp.
Cinchona carabayensis var. lanceolata Miq. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona carabayensis Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona caribaea Jacq. = Exostema caribaea (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona caribbeana W. Wright = Exostema caribaea (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona caroliniana Poir. = Pinckneya pubens Michx.
Cinchona carua (Wedd.) Miq. = Ladenbergia carua (Wedd.) Standl.
Cinchona cattukambar Koenig ex A.J. Retz. = Uncaria acida Roxb.
Cinchona cava Pav. ex Lam. = Ladenbergia pavonii (Lamb.) Standl.
Cinchona chahuarguera Pav. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona chahuarguera Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona china López ex Ruiz = Cosmibuena grandiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Rusby
Cinchona chlororrhiza Bory ex Wedd. = Danais fragrans (Lam.) Pers.
Cinchona chlorrhiza Bory ex DC. = Danais fragrans (Lam.) Pers.
Cinchona chomeliana Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona cladorrhiza Bory ex DC. = Danais fragrans (Lam.) Pers.
Cinchona coccinea Pav. = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona coccinea Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona colorata Lambert = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona colorata Laubert ex B.D. Jacks. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona condaminea Bonpl. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona condaminea var. candollii Wedd. = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona condaminea var. chahuarguera Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona condaminea var. lanceolata (Ruiz & Pav.) Lamb, identity unclear
Cinchona condaminea var. lancifolia (Mutis) Wedd. = Cinchona lancifolia
Cinchona condaminea var. lucumaefolia (Pav. ex Lindl.) Wedd. = Cinchona lucumifolia
Cinchona condaminea var. pitayensis Wedd. = Cinchona pitayensis
Cinchona condaminea var. vera Wedd. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona cordifolia var. microcarp Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona cordifolia var. peruviana Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona coriacea Poir. = Exostema sp.
Cinchona conglomerata Pav. ex Howard = Cinchona villosa
Cinchona cordifolia Mutis = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona cordifolia var. macrocarpa Wedd. ex Howard = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona cordifolia var. rotundifolia (Pav. ex Lamb.) Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona cordifolia var. vera Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona coronulata Miq. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona corymbifera G. Forster = Badusa corymbifera (G. Forster) A. Gray
Cinchona corymbosa (Poepp. & Engl.) Brign. = Exostema corymbosum (Poepp. & Endl.) Spreng.
Cinchona corymbosa H. Karst. = Cinchona pitayensis
Cinchona crassifolia Pav. ex DC. = Ladenbergia crassifolia (Pav. ex DC.) Standl.
Cinchona crispa Tafalla ex Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona cuatrecasaii Standl. ex Steyerm. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona cucumifolia Pav. ex Lamb. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona cujabensis Manso ex Klotsch = Ladenberiga cujabensis Manso ex Klotzsch
Cinchona cuspidata (A. St.-Hil.) Brign. = Bathysa cuspidata (A. St.-Hil.) Hook.f.
Cinchona decurrentifolia Pav. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona delessertiana Standl. = Cinchona parabolica
Cinchona delondriana Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona densiflora (Benth.) Brign. = Remijia densiflora Benth.
Cinchona dichotoma Ruiz & Pav. = Joosia dichotoma (Ruiz & Pav.) H. Karst.
Cinchona discolor Hayne = Cinchona nitida
Cinchona dissimiliflora Mutis ex Humb. = Ferdinandusa dissimiliflora (Humb.) Standl.
Cinchona elliptica Wedd., identity unclear
Cinchona erythrantha Pav. ex Howard = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona euneura Miq. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona excelsa Roxb. = Hymenodictyon orixiense (Roxb.) Mabb.
Cinchona ferruginea A. St.-Hil. = Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil.) DC.
Cinchona firmula Mart. = Remijia firmula (Mart.) Wedd.
Cinchona flaccida (Wall.) Spreng. = Hymenodictyon flaccidum Wall.
Cinchona floribunda Sw. = Exostema sanctae-luciae (Kentish) Britton
Cinchona forbesiana Howard ex Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona formosa (Cham. & Schltdl.) Brign. = Exostema sp.
Cinchona formosa var. laevis (DC.) Brign. = Exostema sp.
Cinchona formosa var. leprosa (DC.) Brign. = Exostema
Cinchona fusca Vell. = Macrocnemum roseum (Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd.
Cinchona fusca Vitm. = Macrocnemum roseum (Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd.
Cinchona gammiana King, identity unclear
Cinchona gironensis Mutis, identity unclear
Cinchona glabra Ruiz, identity unclear
Cinchona glabra Vell., identity unclear
Cinchona glandulosa Ruiz & Pav. ex Triana = Cinchona glandulifera
Cinchona globifera Pav. ex DC. = Uncaria tomentosa (Roem. & Schult.) DC.
Cinchona govana Miq. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona grandiflora Ruiz & Pav. = Cosmibuena grandiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Rusby
Cinchona grandifolia Ruiz & Pav. ex Poir. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona gratissima Wall. = Luculia gratissima (Wall.) Sweet
Cinchona haenkeana Bartl. ex DC. = Palicourea sp.
Cinchona hasskarliana Miq. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona henleana H. Karst. = Ladenbergia muzonensis (Goudot) Standl.
Cinchona henleana var. trichophylla Steyerm. = Ladenbergia muzonensis (Goudot) Standl.
Cinchona herbacea L. = Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona heterocarpa H. Karst. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona heterophylla Pav. ex Howard = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona heterophylla Pavón ex DC. = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona hexandra (Pohl) G. Don = Ladenbergia hexandra (Pohl) Klotzsch
Cinchona hookeriana (Wedd.) H. Karst. = Ladenbergia muzonensis (Goudot) Standl.
Cinchona howardiana Kuntze, identity unclear
Cinchona humboldtiana Roem. & Schult. = Macrocnemum humboldtianum (Roem. & Schult.) Wedd.
Cinchona humboldtiana Lamb. = Cinchona villosa
Cinchona humboldtiana Wedd. = Cinchona villosa
Cinchona humboldtiana var. conglomerata (Pav. ex Howard) Wedd. = Cinchona villosa
Cinchona hybrida Sasaki, identity unclear
Cinchona jamaicensis W. Wright = Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona josephiana (Wedd.) Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona kattu-kambar Koenig ex DC. = Uncaria acida Roxb.
Cinchona laccifera Ruiz & Pav, identity unclear
Cinchona laccifera Tafalla ex We4dd. = Simira rubescens (Benth.) Steyerm.
Cinchona lambertiana A. Braun ex Mart. = Ladenbergia lambertiana (A. Braun ex Mart.) Klotzsch
Cinchona lanceolata Ruiz & Pav., identity unclear
Cinchona lancifolia var. angustifolia (Ruiz) DC. = Cinchona lancifolia
Cinchona lancifolia var. discolor H. Karst. = Cinchona lancifolia
Cinchona lanceifolia var. microphylla Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona lancifolia var. nitida Roem. & Schult. = Cinchona nitida
Cinchona lancifolia var. obovata Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona lancifolia var. obtusata Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona lancifolia var. vera Howard = Cinchona lancifolia
Cinchona lechleriana Schltdl. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona ledgeriana (Howard) Bern. Moens ex Trimen = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona legitima Ruiz ex Lamb. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona leucocalyx Brign., identity unclear
Cinchona lineata Vahl = Exostema lineatum (Vahl) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona longiflora Lamb. = Exostema longiflorum (Lamb.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona longiflora Mutis ex Steud. = Cosmibuena grandiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Rusby
Cinchona luciana Vitman = Exostema sanctae-luciae (Kentish) Britton
Cinchona lucumifolia Pavon ex DC. = Cinchona lucumifolia
Cinchona lutea Pav. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona lutescens Vell. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona lutescens Ruiz ex Vitman = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona macrocalyx var. lucumifolia Pavón ex DC. = Cinchona lucumifolia
Cinchona macrocalyx var. obtusifolia Pavón ex DC. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona macrocalyx var. uritusinga Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona macrocarpa Vahl = Ladenbergia macrocarpa (Vahl) Klotzsch
Cinchona macrocnemia Mart. = Remijia macrocnemia (Mart.) Wedd.
Cinchona macrophylla H. Karst. = Remijia macrophylla (H. Karst.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex Flueck.
Cinchona magniflora Pav. ex DC. = Ladenbergia macrocarpa (Vahl) Klotzsch
Cinchona magnifolia Ruiz & Pav. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona magnifolia Humb. & Bonpl. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona maynensis (Poepp. & Endl.) Brign. = Exostema maynense Poepp. & Endl.
Cinchona micrantha var. huanucensis Wedd. = Cinchona micrantha
Cinchona micrantha var. rotundifolia Wedd. = Cinchona micrantha
Cinchona microphylla Pav. = Cinchona mutisii
Cinchona montana Badier = Exostema sanctae-luciae (Kentish) Britton
Cinchona moritziana (Klotzsch) H. Karst. = Ladenbergia mortiziana Klotzsch
Cinchona mutisii var. crispa Wedd. = Cinchona parabolica
Cinchona mutisii var. microphylla Wedd. = Cinchona mutisii
Cinchona muzonensis Goudot = Ladenbergia muzonensis (Goudot) Standl.
Cinchona myrtifolia Stokes = Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona nitida Benth. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona oblongifolia Mutis = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona oblongifolia Lamb. = Ladenbergia oblongifolia (Mutis) L. Andersson
Cinchona obovata (Wall.) Spreng. = Hymenodictyon obovatum Wall.
Cinchona obovata Pav. ex Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona obtusifolia Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona obtusifolia D. Dietr. = Cosmibuena grandiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Rusby
Cinchona officinalis var. bonplandiana-colorata Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona officinalis var. bonplandiana-lutea Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona officinalis var. condaminea (Bonpl.) Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona officinalis var. crispa (Tafalla ex Howard) Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona officinalis var. uritusinga (Pav. ex DC.) Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona orixiensis Roxb. = Hymenodictyon orixiense (Roxb.) Mabb.
Cinchona ovalifolia Kunth = Macrocnemum humboldtianum (Roem. & Schult.) Wedd.
Cinchona ovalifolia Mutis = Ladenbergia macrocarpa (Vahl) Klotzsch
Cinchona ovata Ruiz & Pav. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona ovata var. rufinervis (Wedd.) Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona ovata var. vulgaris Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pahudiana Howard = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona palescens Vell. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pallescens Ruiz ex Vitman = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pallescens var. obovata Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona pallescens var. ovata (Ruiz & Pav.) Howard = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona palton Pav. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona paniculata (DC.) D. Dietr. = Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil.) DC.
Cinchona parviflora (A. Rich.) Brign. = Exostema parviflorum L. Rich.
Cinchona parviflora Poir. = Cinchona micrantha
Cinchona pavonii Lamb. = Ladenbergia pavonii (Lamb.) Standl.
Cinchona pauciflora Tafalla ex Steud., identity unclear
Cinchona pedunculata H. Karst. = Ciliosemina pedunculata (H. Karst.) Antonelli
Cinchona pelalba Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pelletieriana Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona peruviana (Humb. & Bonpl.) Poir. = Exostema corymbosum (Ruiz & Pav.) Spreng.
Cinchona peruviana Howard = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona peruviana Mutis = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona peruviana var. micrantha (Ruiz & Pav.) Howard = Cinchona micrantha
Cinchona peruviana var. nitida (Ruiz & Pav.) Howard = Cinchona nitida
Cinchona peruviana var. reicheliana Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona peruviana var. vera Howard = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona philippica Cav. = Badusa philippica (Cav.) Vidal
Cinchona pitayensis var. trianae (H. Karst.) Wedd. = Cinchona pitayensis
Cinchona platyphylla Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona prismatostylis H. Karst. = Ladenbergia macrocarpa (Vahl) Klotzsch
Cinchona pubens (Michx.) Hosack = Pinckneya pubens Michx.
Cinchona pubescens Hort. Mackoy ex Endl. = Melanopsidium nigrum Colla
Cinchona pubescens Lamb. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pubescens var. cordata DC. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pubescens var. heterophylla Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona pubescens var. hirsuta (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. = Cinchona hirsuta
Cinchona pubescens var. ovata (Ruiz & Pav.) DC. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pubescens var. pelletieriana (Wedd.) Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona pubescens var. purpurea (Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona purdieana Wedd. = Ciliosemina purdieana (Wedd.) Antonelli
Cinchona purpurascens Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona purpurea Ruiz & Pav. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona purpurea Vell. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona quercifolia Pav. ex Lamb. = Cinchona mutisii
Cinchona quina Ruiz & Pav. = Cosmibuena grandiflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Rusby
Cinchona racemosa schrank = Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Roem. & Schult.
Cinchona reicheliana Howard, identity unclear (nom. invalid.)
Cinchona remijiana A. St.-Hil. = Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil.) DC.
Cinchona remyana Sprent. = Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil.) DC.
Cinchona riedeliana Casar. = Ladenbergia hexandra (Pohl) Klotzsch
Cinchona robusta Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona roraimae Benth. = Remijia roraimae (Benth.) K. Schum.
Cinchona rosea Ruiz & Pav. = Macrocnemum roseum (Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd.
Cinchona rosulenta Howard ex Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona rotundifolia Pav. ex Lamb. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona rubicunda Steud., identity unclear
Cinchona rubicunda Tafalla ex Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona rufinervis Wedd. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona sanctae-luciae Kentish = Exostema sanctae-luciae (Kentish) Britton
Cinchona scrobiculata var. delondriana (Wedd.) Wedd. = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona scrobiculata var. genuina Wedd. = Cinchona scrobiculata
Cinchona souzana (Mart.) Brign. = Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) K. Schum.
Cinchona spinosa Vavass. = Exstema spinosum (Vavass.) Krug & Urb.
Cinchona stadmannii J. V. Thomps. = Danais fragrans (Lam.) Pers.
Cinchona stenocarpa Lamb. = Ladenbergia stenocarpa (Lamb.) Klotzsch
Cinchona stenosiphon Krause = Cinchona nitida
Cinchona stupea Pav. ex Lamb. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona subcordata Pav. ex Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona suberosa Pav. ex Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona subsessilis Miq. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona succirubra Pav. ex Klotzsch = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona succirubra var. conglomerata Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona succirubra var. cuccicara Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona succirubra var. erythroderma Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona succirubra var. spruceana Howard, identity unclear
Cinchona succirubra var. vera Howard = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona tarantaraon Pav. ex Lindl. = Macrocnemum roseum (Ruiz & Pav.) Wedd.
Cinchona tenuiflora (Benth.) Brign. = Remijia tenuiflora Benth.
Cinchona tenuis Ruiz Lopez ex DC. = Cinchona hirsuta
Cinchona tenuis Vell. = Cinchona hirsuta
Cinchona thwaitesii King, identity unclear
Cinchona thyrsiflora Roxb. = Hymenodictyon orixiense (Roxb.) Mabb.
Cinchona timoranum Span. = Hymenodictyon timoranum (Span.) Miq.
Cinchona timorensis Span. ex Walp. = Hymenodictyon timoranum (Span.) Miq.
Cinchona tovarensis H. Karst. = Ladenbergia moritziana Klotzsch
Cinchona trianae H. Karst. = Cinchona pitayensis
Cinchona triflora W. Wright = Exostema triflorum (W. Wright) G. Don
Cinchona tucuyensis H. Karst. = Cinchona pubescens
Cinchona tunita López ex Triana = Cinchona lancifolia
Cinchona umbellulifera Pavon ex Howard = Cinchona scrobiculata
Cinchona undata (Klotzsch) H. Karst. = Ladenbergia undata Klotzsch
Cinchona undulata Pavon ex Howard = Cinchona glandulifera
Cinchona uritusinga Pav. ex DC. = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona uritusinga Pav. ex Howard = Cinchona officinalis
Cinchona vanillodora Steud., identity unclear
Cinchona vellosii A. St.-Hil. = Remijia ferruginea (A. St.-Hil.) DC.
Cinchona villosa Pav. ex Lamb. = Cinchona villosa
Cinchona violacea Pav. ex Howard = Cinchona macrocalyx
Cinchona viridiflora Pav. = Pimentelia glomerata Wedd.
Cinchona weddelliana Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona weddelliana var. angustifolia Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona weddelliana var. multiscrobiculata Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona weddelliana var. rubrifolia Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Cinchona weddelliana var. rubrivenata Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Ladenbergia coriacea K. Krause = Cinchona krauseana
Quinquina calisaya (Wedd.) Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Quinquina carabayensis (Wedd.) Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Quinquina coccinea (Pav. ex DC.) Kuntze = Cinchona macrocalyx
Quinquina heterophylla (Pav. ex DC.) Kuntze = Cinchona macrocalyx
Quinquina humboldtiana (Lamb.) Kuntze = Cinchona villosa
Quinquina lancifolia (Mutis) Kuntze = Cinchona lancifolia
Quinquina ledgeriana (Howard) Kuntze = Cinchona calisaya
Quinquina micrantha (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze = Cinchona micrantha
Quinqina obovata (Pav. ex Howard) Kuntze, identity unclear
Quinquina officinalis (L.) Kuntze = Cinchona officinalis
Quinquina ovata (Ruiz & Pav.) Kuntze = Cinchona pubescens
Quinquina palton (Pav.) Kuntze = Cinchona officinalis
Quinquina succirubra (Pav. ex Klotzsch) Kuntze = Cinchona pubescens


 

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Small to large shrubs and trees, unarmed, terrestrial, without raphides in the tissues, sometimes resinous at stem apices. Leaves opposite, petiolate, with tertiary and quaternary venation not lineolate, on the lower surface often with pubescent and/or foveolate domatia in the axils of the secondary veins; stipules quickly deciduous, interpetiolar or sometimes shortly fused around the stem, triangular to ligulate, generally held erect and flatly pressed together in bud. Inflorescence terminal and in axils of the uppermost leaves, thyrsiform to paniculiform, multiflowered, pedunculate, with bracts developed to reduced. Flowers sessile to pedicellate, distylous, protandrous, medium to large, fragrant, apparently diurnal; hypanthium ellipsoid to turbinate; calyx limb truncate short, 5-lobed, without calycophylls; corolla salverform, white to pink, purple, or red, densely pubescent internally in throat and on lobes, lobes 5, triangular, valvate in bud; stamens 5, inserted in corolla tube, with anthers narrowly ellipsoid, dorsifixed near base, included to partially exserted; ovary 2-locular, with ovules numerous in each locule, imbricated and ascending on axile placentas; stigmas 2-lobed, included or exserted. Fruit capsular, cylindrical to ellipsoid or ovoid, septicidally dehiscent from the base and/or sometimes from the apex, chartaceous to woody; seeds flattened, small, irregularly elliptic to oblong, marginally winged and often erose.

 
 
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