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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 8. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: Peter C. Hoch and Peter H. Raven
General/Distribution: A genus of 7 species and an additional 7 subspecies. Circumboreal but with the greatest diversity in eastern Asia where 11 of the 14 taxa occur. Plants of moist deciduous and coniferous forests. Hybrids, which are morphologically intermediate between the parental species, are common and widespread in the genus and should be sought in Pakistan. Four taxa in Pakistan.
Comment/Acknowledgements: [This study was partially funded through a grant from the United States National Science Foundation (DEB76-82476) and a Grant-in-Aid of Research from Sigma Xi for which the author is grateful. He would also like to thank Peter H. Raven for his advice and helpful suggestions.]


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Erect, perennial, rhizomatous herbs. Leaves opposite, petiolate, denticuate to serrate or occasionally subentire. Inflorescence a raceme or a branched panicle of racemes, terminal on the main stem and at the tips of the uppermost xillary branches. Flowers 2-merous, the stamens opposite the sepals. Petals notched at the apex, rarely emarginate. Stigma bilobed. Fruit uni- or bilocular with single seed in each locule; an indehiscent capsule covered with stiff, uncinate airs. Floral tube deciduous after anthesis.

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1 Ovaries and fruits uniocular. Rhizomes terminated by tubers. Fruit obovoid to slenderly clavate, tapering smoothly to the pedicel. (2)
+ Ovaries and fruits bilocular. Rhizomes not terminated by tubers. Fruit thickened lenticular to flattened pyriform, obliquely rounded to the pedicel 1 Circaea cordata
2 (1) Pedicels glabrous. Petals notched less than ½ their length, obovate to obtriangular. (3)
+ Pedicels glandular pubescent. Petals notched more than ½ their length, V-shaped. 2 Circaea repens
3 (2) Leaves thick, opaque, rounded to subcordate at the base, denticulate to subentire. Ovaries pubescent at anthesis. 3 Circaea alpina subsp. imaicola
+ Leaves thin, translucent, cordate at the base, sharply denticulate to serrate. Ovaries glabrous at anthesis. 3 Circaea alpina subsp. micrantha
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