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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 11/14/2012)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 11/14/2012)
PlaceOfPublication Hort. Reg. Monac. 188. 1829
Synonym Zygia P. Browne, Nat. Hist. Jamaica, 279, t. 22, f. 3. 1756. Spiroloba Raf. Sylva Tellur. 119. 1838. Cathormion Hassk. Retzia, 231. 1855. Feuilleea Ktze. Rev. Gen. 1:182. 1891, in part. Siderocarpus Small, in Bull. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 2:91. 1901, homonym. Havardia Small, loc. cit. 1901. Samanea Merrill, in Jour. Wash. Acad. 6:46. 1916. Abarema Pittier, in Trab. Mus. Com. Venezuela 2:86. 1927. Jupunba Britt. & Rose, in N. Am. Fl. 23:24. 1928. Punjuba Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 28. 1928. Cojoba Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 29. 1928. Ebenopsis Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 33. 1928. Painteria Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 1928. Chloroleucon Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 36. 1928. Pseudosamanea Harms, in Bot. Gart. Berlin Notizbl. 11:54. 1930. Arthrosamanea Britt. & Rose, in Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 35:128. 1936. Macrosamanea Britt. & Rose, loc. cit. 131. 1936.
Note The genus is written Pithecellobium, Pithecollobium or Pithecolobium. The spelling Pitheco- lobium, although lacking priority, has been followed by most authors, including Bentham, Engler & Gilg, Index Kew., Standley, Ducke, Macbride and many others. Pittier and a few others have followed Martius' later alteration of the original spelling, Pithecollobium. Merrill and Britton & Rose have used the original spelling Pithecellobium, and the genus has been so listed in the con- served name list of the International Rules of Botanical Nomenclature. On the basis of general acceptance and simplicity we follow here the spelling Pithecolobium.
Description Trees or shrubs, unarmed or, less frequently, armed with stipular spines or thorns, the branchlets usually puberulent or tomentulose and lenticellate. Leaves small or large, except in very few species ("Cojoba") bipinnate, the pinnae 1 to several pairs opposite on the rachis; leaflets 1 to many pairs opposite on the pinnular rachis (except frequently basal pair alternate or one leaflet of pair aborted); petiole unwinged, usually short, rarely bearing a gland on the upper side; rachis similar to the petiole, generally bearing a gland at insertion of each pair of pinnae; pinnular rachis usually similarly glandular, the glands commonly cupulate; leaflets 2 to many per pinna, small or large, entire, usually inequilateral, seldom heavily pubes- cent above; stipules minute or of prominent spines or thorns. Inflorescence of 1 to several axillary or supra-axillary, lateral or subterminal, pedunculate (rarely sessile) heads or spikes; floral bracts minute or conspicuous. Flowers pentamerous, sessile or rarely pedicellate, almost invariably whitish; calyx campanulate to tubular, pubescent or subglabrous, valvate, shallowly dentate; corolla tubular to funnelform, generally elongate, valvate, frequently tomentulose on the 5 lobes; stamens many, united below into a staminal tube included in or exceeding the corolla; ovary glabrous or pubescent, sessile or stipitate. Legume moniliform, compressed or flat, subcircinate, arcuate or almost straight, normally dehiscent, the valves often twisting after dehiscence; seeds often imbedded in pulp.
Habit Trees shrubs
Distribution Tropics and subtropics of New World; one section (CLYPEARIA of Benth.) Far Eastern.
Note This predominantly New World genus exhibits great variability and has been a temptation to authors favoring segregation. A few of the segregate genera, for example, Samanea Merrill (Jour. Wash. Acad. 6:46. 1916), have little in common with Pithecolobiwm in general, and offer a case for establishment of separate (usually monotypic) genera. In the case of Samanea, Merrill argues his point well and convincingly, but fails to consider the results were each equally divergent species or grouping of species so accorded separate recognition. It is difficult enough to attempt to distinguish Pitheaolobium from long-established genera of the MIMOSOIDEAE, such as Calliandra, Albizzia, etc., without adding confusion in the form of numerous segregates such as Britton and Rose have proposed. It is often nearly impossible to find into which of such segregate genera a species falls, and the key to these genera is impossible to work. Unfortunately, segregations of even universally recognized genera in the MIMOSOIDEAE have been made chiefly on the basis of legume characters. Many specimens, of course, are not in fruit, and such specimens often resemble one genus as much as another. Thus determination often becomes a hit-or-miss matching of specimens. I am led to wonder whether legume characters would not have failed in many generic delimitations had sufficient fruiting specimens been on hand to exhibit variability and degrees of intergradation. Certainly, in Panama, con- sideration of Pithecolobium in a broad sense brings together in one "pigeon-hole" many diverse species which can then be comparatively easily keyed out on vegeta- tive and floral characters.
Key a. Leaves once-pinnate; legume moniliform ("Cojoba"9, in part). b. Floral bracts minute, not exserted nor readily visible in young head; costa and rachis glabrous or becoming glabrous in age; rachial glands mostly longitudinal ............................... 1. P. MEMBRANACEUM bb. Floral bracts 2-6 mm. long, exserted beyond or visible among buds of young head; costa and rachis pubescent except subglabrous in P. rufescens var. vallense; rachial glands essentially isodiametric. c. Leaflets 1-5 pairs, only slightly asymmetrical, 2-15 cm. long (if small usually subglabrous on costa). d. Terminal pair of leaflets usually 10 cm. long or longer; costa of leaflet markedly pubescent below; floral bracts about 4 mm. long, exserted, the young head appearing burr-like . 2. P. RUFESCENS dd. Terminal pair of leaflets seldom as much as 7 cm. long; costa of leaflet subglabrous below; floral bracts less than 3 mm. long, comparatively inconspicuous in young head ...................... 2a. P. RUFESCENS var. VALLENSE cc. Leaflets 4-8 pairs, markedly oblique or inequilateral basally, 2-6 cm. long, tomentose on the costa 3. P. TUBULIFERUM aa. Leaves bipinnate; legume various, seldom moniliform. b. Pinnae only 1 pair. c. Leaflets 3-12 per pinna; stems unarmed. d. Leaflets in pairs (even-pinnate); peduncle conspicuous, 2-24 cm. long; corolla elongate, 12-16 mm. long; legume moniliform. e. Leaflets 2-5 (usually 3 ) pairs per pinna; peduncle usually 2-3 but never more than 6 or 7 cm. long; corolla about 12 m m . long -....................................... ............... 4. P. VALERIOI ee. Leaflets 4-6 pairs per pinna; peduncle 8-24 cm. long; corolla about 16 mm. long .-. 5. P. CATENATUM dd. Leaflets usually 3 or 5 (odd-pinnate) per pinna; heads or spikes scarcely pedunculate; corolla mostly 6-7 mm. long; legume flattened, of essentially uniform width ("Zygia"'). e. Leaflets 3 or 5 per pinna, broadly elliptic (normally less than 3 times as long as broad); flowers in nearly sessile, very con- densed spikes or heads .- ......................... 6. P. LATIFOLIUM ee. Leaflets 3 per pinna, narrowly elliptic (3 or more times as long as broad); flowers in short, lax spikes .-..- .. 7. P. LONGIFOLIUM cc. Pinnae bifoliolate; stems normally armed with stipular spines. d. Flowers in pronounced spikes, the floriferous portion mostly 3-12 cm. long; corolla 4-11 mm. long; legume arcuate or twisting. e. Corolla 7-11 mm. long, stamens 4-6 cm. long - 8. P. HYMENEAEFOLIUM ee. Corolla 4-6 mm. long, stamens no more than 2.5 cm. long- . 9. P. LANCEOLATUM dd. Flowers capitate or short-spicate, the floriferous portion never more than 2 cm. long; corolla 2-4 mm. long; legume coiled or subcircinate. e. Flowers in short spikes; inflorescence an expanded, branched panicle, the peduncles mostly 1-3 cm. long ..- . 10. P. OBLONGUM ee. Flowers capitate; inflorescence a contracted panicle, the heads subsessile or on short peduncles less than 2 cm. long . 11. P. DULCE bb. Pinnae 2 to several pairs. c. Petiole bearing 1-3 sessile glands well below insertion of and not associated with the lowest pair of pinnae (or their scars); leaflets less than 10 mm. long. d. Commonly armed at some or most nodes with stipular spines; buds large, ovoid, with prominent bud scales; legume arcuate, the valves not coiling after dehiscence: ("Chloroleucon") .-.. 12. P. MANGENSE dd. Unarmed; buds slender, naked; legume circinate, twisting in dehiscence, or unknown. e. Leaflets about 40 pairs per pinna, glabrous, narrower (up to 2 mm. wide) - . 13. P. PSEUDO-TAMARINDUS ee. Leaflets up to 16 pairs per pinna, pubescent below, broader (3-6 mm. wide) .-... 14. P. BARBOURIANUM cc. Petiole glandular at extreme apex only (if apparently glandular lower dowiq, gland bordered by scars of aborted pinnae); leaflets 10 mm. long or longer. d. Leaflets 10-25 mm. long; flowers sessile; legume moniliform- subterete, the valves twisting after dehiscence ("Cojoba"), or unknown. e. Leaflets pubescent below, obtuse or rounded 'apically; flowers short (about 4 mm.? long), hirsutulous .................................... 14. P. BARBOURIANUM ee. Leaflets essentially glabrous, more or less acute apically; flow- ers elongate (about 1 cm. long), glabrous or nearly so -------------- 15. P. COSTARICENSE dd. Leaflets 20-50 mm. long; flowers pedicellate; legume thickish but flat, uniform, the valves never twisting ("Samanea"). e. Cupular gland between insertions of basal pinnae large, as much as 1 cm. long; leaflets and flowers lightly pubescent ..... 16. P. MACRADENIUM ee. Gland at insertion of basal pinnae small or nearly obsolete; leaflets and flowers densely pubescent-.......................................... 17. P. SAMAN
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