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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/14/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 6/14/2013)
Genus Clibadium L.
PlaceOfPublication Mant. P1. 161. 1771.
Note TYPE: C. surinamense L.
Description Shrubs; stems terete to obscurely angular. Leaves opposite, lanceolate to cordate, margin serrate or serrulate, petiolate. Inflorescence a racemose, corymbose, or capitate panicle, suboppositely branched with subtending bracts decreasing in size to 1.5-2 mm long near heads; heads 8-600, sessile or on short peduncles 0.5-2 mm long. Heads inconspicuously radiate; involucre cupulate or funnelform, the bracts 6-13, multiseriate, with outer bracts herbaceous and inner bracts somewhat scarious, usually subequal, imbricate, narrowly ovate to obovate; receptacle slightly convex, 0.5-1.5 mm diam.; paleas mostly absent or less often present; ray florets 3-26, usually uniseriate or less often multiseriate, fertile, the corollas tubular, white, the 2-4 lobes 0.1-0.5 mm long, the styles bifid, pappus absent, sometimes of tufts of hairs (C. pilonicum) or of two short awns (C. asperum); disc florets 5-22, the corollas tubular, white, with 5 triangular lobes; the anthers black, the style undivided (sometimes slightly parted at tip), with a 5-lobed nectary at base, the ovary sterile, pappus absent. Achenes obovoid, brown-black, somewhat compressed radially. Chromosome number n 16, 24.
Habit Shrubs
Distribution Clibadium is a genus of approximately 30 species, ranging from Guatemala to southern South America. In Panama the genus has been reported in every province except Los Santos, and the greatest concentration of species (5) occurs in Chiriqui.
Note Local inhabitants in Panama and Colombia use the vegetative parts of at least some of the species as fish poisons ("barbascos"). The leaves and stems are beaten into the water releasing polyacetylene compounds that stun the fish and allow for easy capture. At the present time, despite the existence of two papers that treat Clibadium in some detail (Schulz, 1912; Blake, 1917), the basic taxonomy of the genus is confused, and the treatment here must be regarded as provisional. Clibadium is here included within the subtribe Melampodiinae rather than within the Milleriinae as traditionally placed. Blake (1917) first pointed out the close relationship of Clibadium to Ichthyothere, a genus conventionally referred to the Melampodiinae, and made the transfer to that subtribe. This decision has recently been substantiated by Stuessy (1973).
Reference Blake, S. F. 1917. Notes on the systematic position of Clibadium, with descrip- tions of some new species. Contr. Gray Herb. 52: 1-8. Blake, S. F. 1924. New American Asteraceae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 22: 587-661. Blake, S. F. 1937. Eleven new Asteraceae from North and South America. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci. 27: 374-391. Schulz, 0. E. 1912. Beitrige zur Kenntnis der Gattung Clibadium. Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 46: 613-628. Stuessy, T. F. 1973. A systematic review of the subtribe Melampodiinae (Compositae, Heliantheae). Contr. Gray Herb. 203: 65-80.
Key a. Heads with receptacles paleaceous throughout; ray florets multiseriate (B. sect. Trixidium) ...... 8. C. pittieri aa. Heads with receptacles naked or only partly paleaceous; ray florets uniseriate (A. sect. Clibadium). b. Leaves with a winged petiole tapering to a subauriculate base ...... 6. C. subauriculatum bb. Leaves with a wingless petiole, at base attenuate to obtuse. c. Leaves with 3 conspicuous main veins arising from the very base ...... 5. C. pilonicum cc. Leaves with 3 main veins arising 5-30 mm above the base. d. Mature inflorescence a capitate panicle with groups of 3-6 tightly aggregated heads arranged in a flat-topped cluster ...... 1. C. anceps dd. Mature inflorescence a corymbose or racemose panicle (young inflorescences may appear capitate, but never flat-topped). e. Leaves over 18 cm wide; 'heads usually more than 500 in each inflorescence ...... 3. C. grandifolium ee. Leaves 10 cm wide or less; heads usually less than 20{ in each inflorescence. f. Involucral bracts glabrate (sometimes strigillose near apex), often brown-black when dry, ciliate; peduncles and axes of inflorescence densely villous or strigose ...... 4. C. leiocarpum ff. Involucral bracts strigillose to strigose, yellow-green when dry; peduncles and axes of inflorescence moderately strigose or densely hispid. g. Undersurface of leaves conspicuously reticulately veined and hispid ...... 7. C. surinamense gg. Undersurface of leaves glabrate to strigose ...... 2. C. asperum
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