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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 1/10/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 1/10/2013)
PlaceOfPublication Mem. Wern. Soc. 4:306. 1823.
Description Flowers 4- to 7-merous. Hypanthium cup-shaped to tubular; sepals erect or spreading, of various shapes and sizes, in some species obsolete; exterior teeth present, in many species exceeding and more or less concealing the sepals; petals small, obtuse, mostly white; stamens isomorphic; anthers subulate, linear, semi- ovoid, or rarely obovoid; connective usually simple, or briefly prolonged below the thecae, or rarely prolonged into a short dorsal appendage; ovary partly or wholly inferior, its cells commonly isomerous with the petals; style slender; stigma capitate to punctiform; fruit a globose many-seeded berry. Herbs, shrubs, or rarely even trees, with axillary flowers or flower-clusters of various types.
Distribution About 160 species, widely distributed throughout tropical America. Several other species are known from Costa Rica and some of them may be expected in Panama.
Key a. Flowers 5- to 7-merous. b. Leaves regularly dimorphic, one member of each pair always 2-12 times as long as the other. c. Leaves sessile, glabrous on both sides. d. Leaves obtuse or rounded at the base -1. C. GRACILIS. dd. Leaves cordate and clasping at base -2. C. PITTIERI. cc. Leaves short-petioled, more or less pubescent beneath - - 3. C. OBLONGA. bb. Leaves isomorphic (in lateral branches the leaves of each alternate pair may be somewhat unequal in size.). c. Torus bearing a ring of fimbriate or ciliate scales; hypanthium hirsute with simple hairs. d. Leaves pli-nerved, the inner pair of lateral veins usually alternate; blades usually acute or obtuse at base, averaging nearly three times as long as wide; connective not prolonged below the summit of the filament- -- - - - - - - - 4. C. DENTATA. dd. Leaves 5- to 9-nerved, usually rounded or subcordate at base, averaging less than twice as long as wide; connective minutely prolonged into a short dorsal spur.- - 5. C. HIRTA. cc. Toral scales none. d. Inflorescence distinctly pedunculate, elongate, with a well defined central axis. e. Principal leaves 7- to 9-nerved, cordate or rounded at base; anthers slenderly subulate, not convolute; connective prolonged 0.3-1 mm. between the thecae and the filament. f. Exterior teeth conspicuously surpassing the sepals. - 6. C. STRIGILLOSA. ff. Exterior teeth equaling or barely surpassing the sepals - 7. C. NOVEMNERVIA. ee. Principal leaves 5-nerved, obtuse or rounded at base; anthers stoutly subulate with convolute thecae; connective simple. f. Leaves stellate-tomentose on the actual surface beneath. - 8. C. NEGLECTA. ff. Leaves pubescent beneath with curled simple bristles which obscure or conceal the underlying stellate hairs. g. Inflorescence elongate, the flexuous internodes mostly 1-2 cm. long, sparsely hirsute with simple hairs 1-3 mm. long and conspicuously glandular; hairs of the hypanthium mostly 1-3 mm. long. -.-----------------------------------9. C. CAPITELLATA. gg. Inflorescence short and compact, the internodes rarely as much as 1 cm. long, densely hirsute with simple hairs up to 6 mm. long and nearly or quite concealing the few glandular hairs; hairs of the hypanthium up to 6 mm. long .-........... .. ..... 10. C. DEPENDENS. dd. Inflorescence not distinctly pedunculate or elongate, or rarely with a short peduncle, more or less trichotomous from the base, without a distinct central axis. e. Formicaria none; pubescence of the stem tomentose, hirsute, or substrigose. f. Exterior teeth equaling or shorter than the sepals; stem and hypanthium hirsute above a dense furfuraceous tomentum.-- 11. C. REITZIANA. ff. Exterior teeth distinctly surpassing the sepals; young stems densely substrigose. --------------------- 12. C. DEPPEANA. ee. Formicaria present on the petioles; pubescence of the stem reflexed-setose. f. Lower leaf-surface glabrous, setose on the veins and veinlets; setae of the hypanthium 8-10 mm. longg. 13. C. COLLINA. ff. Lower leaf-surface hirsute throughout; setae of the hypan- thium about 3 mm. long ........................................................... 14. C. TAURINA. aa. Flowers 4-merous. b. Leaves or petioles bearing formicaria. c. Formicaria pendent at the base of the petiole ....................................... 15. C. TOCOCOIDEA. cc. Formicaria at the summit of the petiole .-------------------------------------- 16. C. SETOSA. bb. Formicaria lacking. c. Exterior teeth foliaceous, hispid-ciliate, equaling or exceeding the hypanthium; leaves strongly dimorphic .............................................. .17. C. EPIPHYTICA. cc. Exterior teeth conic to subulate, much shorter than the hypanthium. d. Flowers sessile or nearly so in dense axillary clusters. e. Leaves densely hirsute above, 5-pli-nerved. - 18. C. RUBRA. ee. Leaves glabrous on the surface above, 3-nerved. -19. C. DENSIFLORA. dd. Flowers in branched cymes. e. Leaves broadly ovate, acuminate.- 20. C. PURPUREO- VIOLACEA. ee. Leaves elliptic, abruptly contracted into a slender linear apiculum 2-3 cm. long .................................. 21. C. OMBROPHILA.
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