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Published In: A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2: 711. 1821. (1 Nov 1821) (Nat. Arr. Brit. Pl.) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: HARALD RIEDL and YASIN J. NASIR
Contributor Institution: Naturhistorisches Museum, Botanische Abteilung, Wien, Austria.


National Herbarium, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council, Islamabad, Pakistan.

General/Distribution: The genus comprises more than 40 species, which are distributed from the Western Mediterranean to C. Asia, wh ere they prefer arid to semi-arid regions. Several species are found as weeds in agricultural areas. Represented in Pakistan by 8 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: In the present account Munz’s (1967) treatment of the genus is followed.


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Annual plants with palmately laciniate leaves. Inflorescence racemose or paniculate. Pedicels in axils of bracts, each bearing usually 2 bracteoles. Flowers zygomorphic. Sepals 5, petaloid, the posterior one spurred. Petal 1, subentire to 3-5-lobed, (homologous to the fused superior petals of Delphinium). Stamens numerous. Carpels solitary, forming a follicle.

Several species are cultivated for their ornamental value, and some are found as escapes.


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1 Spur usually 6-7 mm long 5 Consolida schlagintweitii
+ Spur at least 9-10 mm or more long (2)
2 (1) Flowers yellow 8 Consolida flava
+ Flowers whitish, pink, blue or violet (3)
3 (2) Pedicels longer than sepals (4)
+ Pedicels usually shorter than sepals (6)
4 (3) Follicle compressed, c. 10 mm long. Style 2-4 mm long 6 Consolida camptocarpa
+ Follicle ± cylindrical, at least 14 mm long. Style 1-2 mm (5)
5 (4) Bracteoles below middle of the pedicel 2 Consolida ambigua
+ Bracteoles above middle of the pedicel 7 Consolida orientalis
6 (3) Expanded compound petal 15-20 mm wide. Many glandular hairs present, uniformly distributed. 3 Consolida persica
+ Expanded compound petal 8-11 mm wide. If hairs glandular, then the glands situated at their base (7)
7 (6) Follicle 10-15 mm long, compound petal c. 8 mm wide 4 Consolida rugulosa
+ Follicle 8-10 mm long, compound petal c. 11 mm wide 1 Consolida stocksiana
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