The identity of this genus and its species Anthocephalus chinensis and Anthocephalus indicus have been controversial (and sometimes confused). As circumscribed here, Anthocephalus is restricted to Asia and is not naturally distributed in Madagascar; see the project page for Breonia for an overview of its taxonomic and nomenclatural history, and Razafimandimbison (2002: pp. 4-5) for a detailed discussion: he used the name Anthocephalus chinensis for an endemic species of Madagascar, now included in Breonia, and the name Anthocephalus indicus for a different species from Asia. This latter species is now generally called Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser, and is widely cultivated in tropical regions as a lumber tree. This species may potentially be found in Madagascar but has not yet been documented from there (no specimens at MO; not reported by Razafimandimbison, 2002).