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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 386. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: About 20 species; chiefly distributed in tropical and subtropical countries throughout the world. It is represented by 4 species in Pakistan.


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Annual to perennial, prostrate to decumbent, pubescent to glabrescent herbs. Leaves opposite or alternate due to abortion of one leaf, abruptly paripinnate; stipules lanceolate to subulate; leaflets 3-10 pairs, opposite, shortly petiolulate to sessile, oblique, oblong to ovate or elliptical. Flowers solitary, axillary or pseudoaxillary, pedicellate, actinomorphic, yellow, rarely white; disc annular, fleshy, 10-lobed. Sepals 5, free, pubescent, caducous or persistent. Petals 5, free, spreading, obovate, fugaceous. Stamens 10 in 2 whorls, rarely 5, inserted at the base of the disc, 5 antisepalous ones shorter, filaments unappendaged, anthers oblong. Carpels 5; ovary sessile, ovoid or globose, beset with long silky hairs, 5-loculed, each locule with 2-5(-10) obliquely pendulous superposed ovules in axile placentation; style stout, 5-ridged, stigma 5-rayed. Fruit Schizocarpic, winged or spinous, pubescent, septicidally dehiscent into 5, triangular, indehiscent indurated, trans¬versely locellate 1-seeded mericarps. Seeds exalbuminous.

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1 Fruit pyramidal; mericarps neither winged nor spinous
+ Fruit discoid; mericarps winged or spinous (rarely spines reduced or suppressed) (2)
2 (1) Fruit with winged mericarps (3)
+ Fruit with spinose mericarps (spines sometimes reduced to tubercles) (5)
3 (2) Wings of mericarps less than 8 mm broad, pubescent, greyish-green (4)
+ Wings of mericarps 8-15 mm broad, glabrous, straw yellow Tribulus longipetalus subsp. pterophorus
4 (3) Flowers 6-8 mm across; Petals 3-4 mm long. Wings of mericarps 4 mm or less broad Tribulus longipetalus Viv. subsp. longipetalus
+ Flowers 10-12 mm across. Petals 5-6 mm long. Wings of mericarps 4-8 mm broad Tribulus longipetalus subsp. macropterus
5 (2) Leaves more than 2.5 cm long. Flowers more than 10 mm or more in diameter Tribulus terrestris
+ Leaves up to 2.5 cm long. Flowers 8-10 mm across. stamens mostly 5 (rarely up to 10). Fruit c. 8 mm in diameter Tribulus pentandrus
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