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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 1/18/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 1/18/2013)
Genus CYCNOCHES Lindl.
PlaceOfPublication Gen. & Spec. Orch. Pl. 154. 1832
Reference Benth. & Hook. Gen. Pl. 3:552. 1883; Schltr. in Orchis 10:47-61. 1916.
Description Epiphytic herbs with short or elongate, often slightly undulate pseudobulbs of uniform thickness, tapering at the apex. Leaves few to many, distichous, lanceo- late, acuminate, plicate, the blades deciduous, the unarmed, imbricating, persistent, grayish white papery bases tightly enveloping the stems. Inflorescences arching or pendent, unbranched racemes, produced in succession from the upper leaf axils while the plants are still in leaf, or from near the apex of the upper imbricating leaf bases after the blades have fallen. The species of the genus fall into two well marked subgeneric sections. In EUCYCNOCHES, which contains the generic type: both staminate and pistillate flowers large and conspicuous, usually produced on separate scapes, although mixed inflorescences containing both forms may rarely be seen. Sepals and petals in both sexes similar, fleshy or membranaceous, erect or reflexed, the lip in both fleshy, without marginal teeth. Structural differences in this section almost entirely confined to the column, that of the staminate flowers very slender, terete, elongate, and arcuate, bearing the anther at the apex, without a functional stigma or ovary; the pistillate column short, stout, fleshy, more or less winged, particularly at the apex, without an anther, but with a normal stigma and ovary. In HETERANTHAE: staminate and pistillate flowers strikingly dis- similar in size, color and structure, usually produced on separate scapes although mixed inflorescences are rarely seen. Pistillate flowers relatively large and fleshy, similar in structure to those of the subgenus EuCYCNOCHES, usually produced on short, arching, few-flowered racemes. Staminate flowers small, on elongate, often dense, pendent racemes. Sepals and petals membranaceous, spreading or reflexed, often undulate, the lip reduced to a small ligular, triangular or rounded, usually concave disk, margined by long or short-pointed, forked, rounded or clavate teeth. Column slender, terete, arcuate. In both subgeneric sections the anther of the staminate form is terminal, operculate, incumbent, 1-celled or imperfectly 2- celled; pollinia 2, waxy.
Note An extremely interesting but poorly understood genus of American epiphytic orchids ranging from Mexico to Peru and Brazil. Schlechter's revision, published in 1916, lists sixteen species, to which some nine or ten have been added to date. Present evidence would indicate that of this considerable total about ten actually represent fairly consistent and valid entities, six of which are known to occur in Panama.
Key a. Both staminate and pistillate flowers large, nearly identical except for the column. Lip of both sexes very fleshy, with a membranaceous margin or apex, that of the staminate flowers without marginal teeth (Subgenus EUCYCNOCHES). b. Lip sessile or nearly sessile, broadly elliptic-lanceolate, acute, convex, nearly twice as long as broad, with a narrow, ovate, obtuse depression below the projecting triangular, basal callus ........................................ 2. C. CHLOROCHILON bb. Lip truly clawed at the base, strongly ventricose. c. Basal claw of the lip elongate; basal callus broadly obtuse at the apex, not projecting, the surrounding blotched area not depressed.. 6. C. VENTRICOSUM cc. Basal claw of the lip short; basal callus triangular, acute, project- ing, the surrounding area with a broadly lunate depression ............5 . C. TONDUZII aa. Staminate and pistillate flowers strikingly dissimilar; pistillate flowers fleshy, relatively large, the lip nearly flat or slightly convex; staminate flowers small, membranaceous, in short or elongate, pendent racemes. Lip truly clawed at the base, the mid-portion concave, with marginal teeth (Subgenus HETERANTHAE). b. Staminate flowers relatively large. Sepals and petals spreading or only the apices recurved. Lip 2-2.5 cm. long, ovate, the basal concavity elliptic, broadly lanceolate. Marginal teeth slender, elongate, usually forked at the apex .................................... 1. C. AVREUM bb. Staminate flowers relatively small. Sepals and petals usually strongly recurved and often undulate or revolute. Lip about 1-1.5 cm. long, the basal concavity ovate to orbicular, terminating in a slender lanceolate or ligular apex. Marginal teeth usually rounded or clavate, sometimes forked at the apex. c. Marginal teeth very short, rounded or subclavate, inconspicuous in dried specimens ................................................. 3. C. DIANAE cc. Marginal teeth elongate, truncate, clavate, or rarely forked at the apex, very conspicuous in dried specimens . ......... 4. C. EGERTONIANUM
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