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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 1/14/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 1/14/2013)
PlaceOfPublication Sp. PI. ed. 1. 960. 1753.
Synonym Isotrema Raf. in Amer. Monthly Mag. & Crit. Rev. 4:195. 1819. Hocquartia Dum. Comm. Bot. 30. 1822. Dasyphonion Raf. First Cat. Bot. Gard. Transylv. Univ. 13. 1824. Cardiolochia Raf. ex Rchb. Consp. 85. 1828. Einomeia Raf. Medic. Fl. 1:62. 1828. Endodeca Raf. loc. cit. 62. 1828, sphalm. Pistolochia Raf. loc. cit. 62. 1828. Siphisia Raf. loc cit. 62. 1828. Isiphia Raf. Medic. Fl. 2:232. 1830. Dictyanthes Raf. in Loudon, Gard. Mag. 8:247. 1832. Niphus Raf. loc. cit. 247. 1832. Siphidia Raf. loc. cit. 247. 1832. Ambuya Raf. Fl. Tellur. 4:98. 1836. Diglosselis Raf. loc. cit. 98. 1836. Endotheca Raf . loc. cit.- 9 8. 1836, corr. Endodeca ( 1828). Hexaplectris Raf. loc. cit. 97. 1836. Plagistra Raf. loc. cit. 9 8. 18 3 6. Psophiza Raf. loc. cit. 99. 1836. Pteriphis Raf. loc. cit. 99. 1836. Tropexa Raf. loc. cit. 98. 1836. Guaco Liebm. in Forhandl. Skandin. Naturf. 1844:203. 1847. Howardia Klotzsch, in Monatsb. Acad. Berl. 18 59:607. 1859.
Description Lianas, rarely upright perennial herbs, shrubs or trees. Leaves alternate, petiolate, estipulate but an axillary bud often producing a clasping, broadly reni- form leaf (pseudostipule); blade entire or 3 to 7-lobed, often cordate, palmately or pinnately veined, variable. Flowers axillary, solitary, perfect, epigynous, zygo- morphic. Calyx gamosepalous, variously inflated, thence more or less contracted, expanding into a 1- to 3-lobed limb. Corolla absent. Stamens typically 6, the anthers sessile and adnate to the style, 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally. Ovary inferior, 6-loculate; placentation axile, the ovules numerous, anatropous. Styles 6, marginally connate, fleshy, with coroniform stigmatic lobes, or essentially capitate. Fruit a capsule, septicidally or septifragally 6-valved, often dehiscing acropetally. Seeds numerous, horizontally compressed in vertical rows, the embryo rudimentary in abundant endosperm.
Habit Liana herb
Habit shrub tree
Note In the treatment of Aristolochia presented here, it has seemed the wisest choice to include, in addition to the species collected in Panama, accounts of those reason- ably certain to be found there. Accordingly, these species will be found incor- porated into the key to species and described with the presently known groups in the formal treatment. Perhaps a word of caution might be of some help when attempting to key flowering material in this genus. Many of the collections of the large-flowered species are collections of buds, and dimensions derived from them must be regarded as approximate. For example, the flowers of Aristolochia grandiflora become fourteen feet long but few collections reflect this great dimension. The buds un- doubtedly develop for weeks before anthesis and few collectors are willing to return to the same location repeatedly for the sake of a single bloom; hence the measured length of the calyx tube as collected may be considerably less than the mature size.
Key a. Shrubs or low perennial herbs; pseudostipules absent. b. Stems glabrous; flowers axillary near the apices of young vegetative shoots; leaves cordate-reniform; perennial herbs with swollen roots. 1. A. NUMMULARIFOLIA

bb. Stems woolly; flowers borne in clusters near the ground, cauliflorous; leaves extremely variable in size and shape; shrubs; capsules dehiscing apically ...-., , . . , , , , . ....... 2. A. PANAMENSIS

aa. Lianas; stems hirsute to glabrous; flowers axillary or racemose on young shoots or if on old wood not produced near the ground; capsules dehiscing acropetally. c. Pseudostipules present. d. Leaves (other than pseudostipules) trilobate, the base truncate; calyx limb bilobate, the lower lobe ending in a filiform extension 8 to 20 cm. long -----------------------------------------3. A. TRILOBATA

dd. Leaves unlobed, the base cordate to subhastate. e. Flowers solitary, axillary, more than 8 cm. long, the axis of the calyx tube abruptly bent at the union of the utricle and the tube; ovary with a sharp bend at the distal end, thus bearing the flower to one side; leaves irregular, but with a tendency toward a cordate-hastate base, the lobes broad and circular in outline ...............................-.......... 4. A. ODORATISSIMA

ee. Flowers in axillary racemes, less than 6 cm. long, rectilinear; ovary without an apical bend; leaves simply cordate at the base.

f. Calyx limb strongly monolobate becoming broadly expanded with a plicature along its median nerve; utricle ovoid, gibbous, narrowing abruptly to the 5 mm.-long tube . -... .. 5. A. INFLATA

ff. Calyx limb unequally bilobate, the upper short and barely extended beyond the throat, the lower long, spatulate and non-plicate; utricle cylindric to spheroid, gradually and slightly narrowing to the 15 mm.-long tube . -.. . 6. A. ANGUICIDA

cc. Pseudostipules absent.

g. Ovary immediately subtended by a foliaceous bracteole.

h. Calyx tube glabrate, ca. 3 dm. long, yellow blotched with purple; bracteole orbicular .................. - -7. A. ARBORESCENS

hh. Calyx tube densely pubescent at maturity, at anthesis ca. 3 m. long, white and pink blotched with purple; bracteole acuminate. 8. A. GRANDIFLORA

gg. Ovary not subtended by a foliaceous bracteole, the pedicels naked.

i. Calyx limb with numerous fimbriae on the inner surface. -........ 9. A. COSTARICENSIS

ii. Calyx limb without fimbriae.

j. Leaves cordate-ovate, nearly as wide as long; stems glabrous.

k. Flowers borne in short racemes or clusters on old wood, cauliflorous.

1. Veins in leaves conspicuously marked with white borders; leaves long-acuminate; flowers small, 3 to 4 cm. long. --------------- 10. A. VERAGUENSIS

11. Veins in leaves green; leaves short-acuminate; flowers longer than 20 cm., showy- -..-- .----------.11. A. SYLVICOLA

kk. Flowers borne in many flowered racemes in axils of leaves of young shoots .-............. ........ ......... 6. A. ANGUICIDA

jj. Leaves oblong, more than three times longer than wide.

m. Flowers rectilinear, more than 10 cm. long; leaves deeply cordate ..-.......... ............. .......... 12. A. CHAPMANIANA

mm. Flowers with tube and limb reflexed on the utricle, ca. 5 cm. long; leaves truncate to subcordate at the base-. . 13. A. MAXIMA
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