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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/5/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 6/5/2013)
Genus Mikania Willd.
PlaceOfPublication Sp. PI., ed. 4. 3(3): 1742. 1803.
Note TYPE: Eupatorium scandens L. typ. cons.
Synonym Carelia A. L. Jussieu ex Cav., Anales Ci. Nat. 6. 1802 (1803), not Carelia G. Pontedera ex P. C. Fabricius 1759. TYPE: C. satureiaefolia Cav. = Mikania amara Willd. Corynanthelium Kunze, Linnaea 20: 19. 1847. TYPE: C. Moronoa Kunze. Morrenia Kunze, Linnaea 20: 1847, nom. nud. pro syn. TYPE: M. odorata Kunze, nom. nud. Moronoa Kunze, error for Morrenia. Willoughbya Neck. ex Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 371. 1891. TYPE: Eupatorium scandens L.
Description Vines or reclining weak shrubs, perennial, with few to many branches. Leaves opposite or rarely verticellate, distinctly petiolate; blades broadly ovate to linear, often cordate or hastate, sometimes dissected. Inflorescence paniculate with paniculate, racemose, spicate, corymbose or subcymose branches; pedicels present or lacking. Heads discoid with 4 florets; involucre of 4 subequal bracts, usually with a fifth distinct subinvolucral bract; receptacle flat, glabrous; corolla white or sometimes pink, funnelform to broadly campanulate, often with a distinct tube, 5-lobed, the lobes short to elongate, the corolla cells usually large or quadrate with straight walls, sometimes forming papillae on lower inside surface of the limb; anthers exserted, the anther collar with quadrate to short-oblong cells and inornate walls, the anther apendage as long as broad or longer; nectary usually elongate; the style base often stout, usually without a distinct enlargement, usually glabrous, sometimes papillose, the style appendages linear without enlarged tip, densely papillose, glanduliferous. Achenes prismatic, 4-10-ribbed, glabrous or with glands or bristles; carpopodium short-cylindrical with mostly subquadrate cells; pappus of ca. 35-60 scabrous bristles in 1-2 series, the apical cells usually blunt.
Habit Vines or reclining weak shrubs
Distribution Mikania is a genus of about 300 species ranging from the eastern United States through Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies into South America.
Note A few species are credited to the eastern hemisphere. Fourteen species have been collected in Panama. A useful treatment of Mikania in Venezuela is presented by Aristeguieta (1964).
Reference Holmes, W. C. & S. McDaniel. 1976. Notes on Mikania (Compositae). II. Phytologia 33: 1-3. Robinson, B. L. 1922. II. The Mikanias of northern and western South America. Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 21-116. Robinson, B.L. 1934a. II. The variability of two wide-ranging species of Mikania. Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 49-55. Robinson, B.L. 1934b. III. Mikania scandens and its near relatives. Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 55-71. Steyermark, J. A. 1953. Compositae. In Contributions to the flora of Venezuela -Botanical exploration in Venezuela III. Fieldiana, Bot. 28: 620-678.
Key a. Panicles with elongate racemose or spicate branches. b. Leaves distinctly puberulous and glandular-punctate; heads 7-9 mm high; stems never fistulose ...... 11. M. psilostachya bb. Leaves with few hairs and not prominently glandular-punctate; heads 4-6 mm high; stems often fistulose. c. Heads pedicellate ...... 6. M. houstoniana cc. Heads sessile ...... 7. M. leiostachya aa. Panicles with paniculate or corymbose branches. d. Stems and leaves densely villous; corollas broadly campanulate; stems never fistulose ...... 2. M. banisteriae dd. Stems and leaves puberulous to glabrous, not densely villous; corollas broadly campanulate to narrowly funnelform; larger stems often fistulose. e. Leaf blades with cordate bases. f. Heads 8-9 mm high; corolla lobes elongate, longer than the throat ...... 3. M. cordifolia ff. Heads 4-5 mm high; corolla lobes short, not as long as the throat. g. Leaves, involucral bracts, and corollas with prominent reddish glandular punctations; corollas narrowly campanulate; style base densely papillose ...... 1. M. amblyolepis gg. Leaves, involucral bracts, and corollas with pale glands; corollas broadly campanulate; style base glabrous ...... 9. M. micrantha ee. Leaf blades with rounded to cuneate bases. h. Style appendages hirsute with long papillae; style base papillose; inflores- cence with regularly corymbose branches with heads almost all in groups of 3. i. Leaves coriaceous, bases of blades mostly rounded to slightly cuneate, lower surface with slightly reticulate veins and few hairs or glands ...... 14 . M . zonensis ii. Leaves papyraceous, bases of blades distinctly cuneate, lower surface with reticulate veins not prominent and with numerous hairs and glands ...... 4. M. guaco hh. Style appendages not hirsute, with short papillae; style base glabrous; inflorescence without regularly corymbose branches with heads not all in groups of 3. j. Heads individually pedicellate; inflorescence an irregularly corymbose panicle ...... 13. M. tysonii jj. Heads sessile in pairs or clusters; inflorescence a regular panicle with paniculate branches. k. Heads usually 10 or more in glomerate clusters; corollas slender below but without sharply demarcated tube ...... 12. M. tonduzii kk. Heads in pairs or clusters of 3-5; corollas with sharply demarcated tube. 1. Leaves oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, tertiary veins closely and regularly transverse; heads ca. 5 mm high ...... 8. M. miconioides 11. Leaves narrowly to broadly ovate, tertiary veins not in a regular -transverse pattern; heads 7-9 mm high. m. Leaves caudate-acuminate, glabrous, with prominent included branched vein endings ...... 10. M. pittieri mm. Leaves acute to scarcely acuminate, sparsely puberulous, included vein endings not prominent ...... 5. M. hookeriana
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