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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 212. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: S.I. ALI
General/Distribution: A genus with c. 150 species, distributed in tropical and temperate regions of the world; represented in Pakistan by 6 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: Hooker, f. (l.c.), Parker (l.c.) and Kitamura (Fl. Afgh. 308. 1960) have treated the genus Cynanchum L. in a broader sense including the genus Vincetoxicum. However, Decaisne (in DC., Prodr. 8: 523. 1844), Boissier (l.c.), Bullock (l.c.) Rechinger, f. (l.c.), Markgraf (l.c.) and Browicz (in Davis, Fl. Turkey 6:167. 1978) have treated Vincetoxicum as a genus distinct from Cynanchum. Accepted in this sense, the genus Cynanchum differs from Vincetoxicum in usually having tubular (sometimes divided) membranous corona with internal processes or scales, whereas Vincetoxicum has simple and deeply divided corona with more or less fleshy or coriaceous segments without internal processes and connate at the base by a membranous structure.


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Woody climbers. Leaves opposite, petiolate. Flowers in axillary or terminal umbelloid cymes. Corolla lobes twisted in bud. Corona double, with 5 inner and 5 outer processes or ± single with appendage on the inner face of each lobe. Pollinia 1 in each cell, pendulous, waxy, without pellucid margin. Follicles fusiform and smooth.

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1 Corolla glabrous within (2)
+ Corolla pubescent within (4)
2 (1) Corona lobes not longer than the corolla (3)
+ Corona lobes longer than the corolla, (leaf ovate-lanceolate, base cordate) 1 Cynanchum heydei
3 (2) Leaf lanceolate to linear, auriculate to cordate, 5 caudate coronal lobes with tongue-like process near the base within 3 Cynanchum acutum
+ Leaf linear, linear-lanceolate, cordate, corona 5-10 toothed with 5 small scales near the base 2 Cynanchum dalhousiae
4 (1) Petiole 1.5 cm long (5)
+ Petiole 2.5-8 cm long 4 Cynanchum auriculatum
5 (4) Plant glabrous, corona lobes lanceolate acute with small processes below them 5 Cynanchum jacquemontianum
+ Plant canescent, corona lobes thick, obtuse 6 Cynanchum petrense
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