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Published In: The Gardeners Dictionary...Abridged...fourth edition vol. 3. 1754. (Gard. Dict. Abr. (ed. 4)) Name publication detail

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: About 80 species, mainly from the Mediterranean region but also from N. America, Europe, Africa and Asia. Represented in Pakistan by 10 species.


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Annual herbs. Stem dichotomous, glabrous to sparsely pubescent. Leaves entire or lobed, opposite. Bracts free. Flowers small, in cymose heads or corymbs or solitary in the axil of the dichotomies, white, lilac or pinkish-blue. Calyx limb small, enlarged in fruit, variously lobed, regular or irregular, persistent. Corolla 5-lobed, infundibuliform or salver-shaped, gibbous or spurred at the base. Stamens 3, rarely less. Stigma 3-fid. Fruit 3-locular, 2 of the locules sterile and sometimes fused with each other, the third 1-seeded.

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1 Achene turbinate, villous or woolly (2)
+ Achene ovoid, oblong to urceolate or elongated, glabrous, pubescent, tuberculate or glandular (3)
2 (1) Calyx limb 3-lobed; lobes coroniform. Achene woolly
+ Calyx limb 6-lobes triangular, uncinate. Achene villous Valerianella coronata
3 (1) Calyx limb obliquely truncate or cupular; lobes absent or reduced (4)
+ Calyx variously lobed (6)
4 (3) Calyx limb obliquely truncate, lobes absent. Achene ovoid, 1-1.5 mm long; fertile locule much larger then the sterile pair (5)
+ Calyx limb shortly cupular, often with a short tooth. Achene elongated, 2-2.5 mm long, slightly curved; fertile locule ± the same size as the sterile pair Valerianella plagiostephana
5 (4) Calyx about half as long as the achene Valerianella dentata
+ Calyx as long or longer than the achene Valerianella muricata
6 (3) Calyx limb with 1-3 linear extensions. Achene pubescent or papillose (7)
+ Calyx limb 6-10-lobed. Achene tuberculate Valerianella tuberculata
7 (6) Achene not gibbous at the base; sterile locule pair larger than the fertile one. Calyx limb with linear extension (8)
+ Achene gibbous at the base; sterile locule pair abortive. Calyx limb with 2-3 linear extensions, rarely less (9)
8 (7) Achene linear, slightly curved; anterior groove linear. Calyx limb extension patent
+ Achene ovoid, oblong or urn-shaped; anterior groove oblong-ovate. Calyx limb extension horizontal Valerianella szovitsiana
9 (7) Plants 6-25 cm tall. Corolla tube glabrous. Calyx limb extension less than 1 mm broad, tip 1-2 dentate Valerianella oxyrhyncha
+ Plants 3-6 cm tall. Corolla tube hispid. Calyx limb extension 1-2 mm broad, margin dentate Valerianella triplaris
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