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Published In: Species Plantarum 1: 130. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: YASIN J. NASIR
General/Distribution: A large and complex genus of c. 270-276 species in temperate and tropical regions of both hemispheres.
Comment/Acknowledgements: In Pakistan, the largest of the Boraginaceae genera with 23 species in about 11 sections. Some of the taxa are very variable in their repetitive characters (e.g. Heliotropium bacciferum Forssk., Heliotropium europium L. etc.). The inflorescence, including corolla, style and nutlet characters are important diagnostically. In some related taxa (Heliotropium baluchistanicum, Heliotropium gillianum, Heliotropium cabulicum, Heliotropium biannulatum, Heliotropium ovalifolium, Heliotropium remotiflorum) the corolla is hairy within and differences are based on the size of corolla, corolla lobe and style/stigma length.


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Annual or perennial, prostrate to erect herbs or undershrubs with usually vinous to scabrid indumentum, rarely glabrous. Leaves alternate, entire. Inflorescence usually of terminal or axillary scorpiod cyme. Flowers small, white, bracteate or not. Calyx usually 5-partite into linear or lanceolate lobes, persistent. Corolla 5-lobed, tubular to infundibuliform, hairy on the outside and sometimes variously so within; lobes ± erect or inflexed, obtuse to linear, with dentations or lobed between them or not. Stamens 5, free, included and attached to the corolla tube; anthers elongated, subsessile, sometimes apiculate. Ovary 4-locular or incompletely 2-locular. Style erect. Stigma ± conical or elongated. Stigmatic disc usury present. Fruit comprising of 2-4 nutlets.

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1.Calyx shallowly 5-lobed, completely enclosing the fruit
Heliotropium supinum
1.Calyx 5-partite. Fruit not completely enclosed in the calyx
2.Plants glabrous
Heliotropium curassavicum
2.Plants vinous to scabrid
3.Stigmas 2, linear-recurved, exserted
Heliotropium ophioglossum
3.Stigma solitary, minutely 2-fid or capitate, included
4.Stigma capitate, entire
Heliotropium rariflorum
4.Stigma conical, entire or not
5.Flowers bracteate or at least some
6.Effect semi-shrubby herbs. Leaves linear, 25-50 mm long
Heliotropium zeylanicum
6.Prostrate to decumbent herbs. Leaves linear lanceolate to elliptic
7.Inflorescence compact, 20-40 mm long. Leaves lanceolate to elliptic. Flowers sessile
Heliotropium marifolium
7.Inflorescence t lax, 20-100 mm long. Leaves linear-lanceolate (lower down on the inflorescence)
Heliotropium strigosum
5.Flowers ebracteate
8.Corolla lobes caudate-acuminate
Heliotropium subulatum
8.Corolla lobes obtuse to ovate or caudate
9.Corolla hairy within
10.Hairs within corolla in two distinct zones
Heliotropium baluchistanicum
10.Hairs not present in zones
11.Corolla 4-8 mm long
12.Corolla lobes linear, inflexed. Stigma 1.5-1.8 mm long
Heliotropium gillianum
12.Corolla lobes ± ovate, obtuse. Stigma 0.7-0.8 mm long
13.Leaves ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate. Hairs-arising from a swollen base. Inflorescence up to 9 flowered. Corolla uniformly hairy within
Heliotropium cabulicum
13.Leaves ovate to ovate-oblong. Hairs without a swollen base. Inflorescence up to 20-flowered. Corolla not uniformly hairy within
Heliotropium biannulatum
11.Corolla 2-3 mm long
14.Leaves elliptic to obovate, 10-25 mm long. Flowers close set. Anthers 0.5-0.6 mm long, narrow, attached c. 0.5 mm from corolla base. Stigma 0.4 mm long
Heliotropium ovalifolium
14.Leaves ovate, 7-10 mm long. Flowers distantly placed. Anthers c. 1 mm long, ± ovate, attached c. 0.9 mm from corolla base. Stigma 1 mm long
Heliotropium remotiflorum
9.Corolla glabrous within
15.Plants annual
16.Corolla lobes sublinear, inflexed
Heliotropium alii
16.Corolla lobes ovate to oblong, obtuse
17.Plants greyish-white. Flowers uniseriate. Calyx deciduous at length
Heliotropium calcareum
17.Plants green to greenish-grey. Flowers biseriate. Calyx persistent at length
Heliotropium europaeum
15.Plants perennial
18.Corolla lobes ovate to oblong, obtuse
19.Leaves ovate to oblong-ovate. Anthers oblong, 1.8-2 mm long
Heliotropium ulophyllum
19.Leaves lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. Anthers narrow ovate, 0.8-1 mm long
20.Plants erect to suberect, stems up to 5 mm thick at base. Leaf margin crisp-undulate. Nutlet margin not-winged
Heliotropium crispum
20.Plants decumbent to procumbent; stems up to 15 mm thick at base. Leaf margin revolute or indistinctly undulate. Nutlet margin winged
Heliotropium bacciferum
18.Corolla lobes sublinear, inflexed
21.Anther connectives not produced
Heliotropium dasycarpum
21.Anther connectives produced
22.Sinuses of corolla lobes without dentitions or lobes. Anthers 1.0 mm long
Heliotropium aucheri
22.Sinuses of corolla lobes with dentitions or lobes
Heliotropium lamondiae

Lower Taxa
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