Molecular data presented in Tripp & al. (2013) indicate that several Malagasy endemic genera are part of a clade that includes all sampled species of Ruellia: Benoicanthus, Eusiphon and Pseudoruellia. All these genera have the Ruellia pollen type (see Tripp & al., 2013: 110, fig. 14H–14N). Plants previously ascribed to Benoicanthus have attractive long, white flowers; and have half-fused calyx lobes that bear some resemblance to Eusiphon. Heine & Raynal (1968) noted the similarity of Benoicanthus to Ruellia but distinguished the two by number of seeds per capsule and other features. However, those authors did not take into account the full range of variation of these traits in Ruellia. Plants previously ascribed to the monospecific Pseudoruelliahave remarkable red flowers and have fleshy leaves, which is otherwise unknown in Ruellia. Pseudoruellia was erected by Benoist (1962), but the sole species, Pseudoruellia perrieri, was first described in Ruellia (Benoist 1945). In that publication, Benoist noted that its distinctive calyx morphology was shared by other Malagasy Ruellia, concluding that ‘‘c’est un veritable Ruellia’’ (Benoist 1945: 5). (Adapted from Tripp & al. in Int. J. Plant Sci. 2013).