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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 993. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 8/26/2009)
Acceptance : Accepted
 

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3. Sagittaria L. (arrowhead)

(Beal, 1960; Beal et al., 1982; Wooten, 1973)

Plants perennial or sometimes annual. Rhizomes, corms (these sometimes called tubers in the literature), and stolons variously present in our species, except S. calycina. Leaf blades linear to broadly elliptic or ovate, often hastate or sagittate, reduced or absent in submerged plants. Venation with several pairs of main veins arching from the base of the midrib and rejoining near the apex and the tips of the lobes (when present), these connected by finer, angled veins running parallel to one another. Inflorescences racemes with whorled flowers, sometimes branched at the lowest node. Flowers unisexual or perfect. Sepals ovate, persistent. Stamens many. Pistils many, in a dense spiral cluster on the globose, expanded receptacle. Styles terminal or lateral. Fruits flattened, usually winged on the edges and ribbed on the sides. About 25 species, worldwide, mainly in the New World.

In addition to their value as food for wildlife, the starchy corms of some Sagittaria species have been cooked, roasted, or candied for human consumption. Some species are commercially important as aquarium plants or aquatic ornamentals.

 

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1 Sepals appressed or ascending in fruit; lower whorls of flowers usually perfect 3 Sagittaria calycina var. calycina
+ Sepals reflexed in fruit; lower whorls of flowers pistillate (2)
2 (1) Leaves with sagittate blades not produced, the leaf blades linear to ovate, sometimes with a pair of small basal lobes (3)
+ The blades of at least the emergent leaves hastate to sagittate, with large basal lobes (6)
3 (2) Lower, pistillate flowers sessile, or with short pedicels to 8(B10) mm long; inflorescences with an abrupt bend at the lowermost whorl of flowers 7 Sagittaria rigida
+ Lower, pistillate flowers with pedicels 10B40 mm long; inflorescences not bent (4)
4 (3) Filaments of stamens glabrous, not swollen basally; bracts at nodes of the inflorescence fused only at the base, the free portions linear-lanceolate, acuminate 1 Sagittaria ambigua
+ Filaments of stamens minutely roughened or papillose, swollen basally (5)
5 (4) Fruiting pedicels ascending to spreading, not thickened; bracts at nodes of the inflorescence fused in the basal half, the free portions triangular, acute; fruits with triangular beaks less than 0.3 mm long, sometimes absent 4 Sagittaria graminea var. graminea
+ Fruiting pedicels reflexed, thickened; bracts at the nodes of the inflorescence fused most of their length, the free portions broadly triangular, obtuse; fruits with slender beaks more than 0.3 mm long 6 Sagittaria platyphylla
6 (2) Lower, pistillate flowers sessile, or with short pedicels to 8(B10) mm long; inflorescences with an abrupt bend at the lowest whorl of flowers 7 Sagittaria rigida
+ Lower, pistillate flowers with pedicels 10B40 mm long; inflorescences not bent (7)
7 (6) Fruits with the beak erect to ascending; bracts at the nodes of the inflorescence (1.0B)1.5B4.0 cm long, linear to lanceolate, narrowly acute to acuminate at the apex 2 Sagittaria brevirostra
+ Fruits with the beak spreading at a right angle to the body of the achene; bracts at the nodes of the inflorescence to 1.3 cm long, boat-shaped, rounded to broadly acute at the apex 5 Sagittaria latifolia var. latifolia
 
 
 
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