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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 1015. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
General/Distribution: A genus with c. 520 species; represented in Pakistan by c. 26 species.
Comment/Acknowledgements: As the male and female plants exist separately, and, in some cases considerable hyberidization between different taxa is also involved, hence taxonomically Salix is a difficult genus. Considerable morphological variation is met with in each species.

Note: Salix nuristanica A.K.Skvortsov could not be keyed due to lack of male plants.


 

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Trees, shrubs or subshrubs. Buds with single outer scale. Leaves alternate, stipules often present, petiole short or absent; lamina linear lanceolate, oblong or obovate. Catkins appearing before, with or after the leaves; erect, spreading or rarely pendulous, sessile or pedunculate. Flower bracteate, bract 1. Glands 1 or 2 (or more) small. Stamens usually 2 (sometimes up to 12). Filaments free or united. Ovary unilocular, mostly stipitate; style and stigmas variable. Fruit 2-valued; valves mostly recurving after dehiscence. Seeds small, comose.
 

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Switch to indented key format
0 Key based on male plants
+ Key based on female plants
+ Key based on vegetative characters
1 Stamens 3 or more per flower. (2)
+ Stamens 2 per flower. (3)
+ Capsule glabrous. (2)
+ Capsule hairy. (16)
+ Dwarf shrubs, prostrate or procumbent, up to 15 cm tall (section Lindleyana). (2)
+ Erect shrubs or trees, more than 30 cm tall. (3)
2 (1) Dwarf shrubs of alpine areas; leaves generally not exceeding 2.5 cm. (3)
+ Small or large shrubs or trees. (4)
+ Catkins 5-13 cm long, lax, flowers present in whorls. 2 Salix tetrasperma
+ Catkins 1.5-4-(5) cm long, dense. 1 Salix acmophylla
+ Lamina elliptic, ovate or suborbicular or spathulate-obovate, margin glandular serrate or crenate. 18 Salix flabellaris
+ Lamina oblong-lanceolate, obovate-oblong, oblong, margins serrulate to crenulate. 19 Salix lindleyana
3 (1) Dwarf shrubs, prostrate or procumbent, usually less than 30 cm tall. (4)
+ Erect shrubs or trees, more than 30 cm tall. (5)
+ Lamina green, at least 5 times as long as wide, usually linear, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate. (4)
+ Lamina rarely slightly grayish blue, less than 5 times as long as wide, often elliptic to suborbicular or oblong to obovate-oblong. (17)
+ Rachis of the female catkin hairy; catkin 10-45 mm long; leaf margin crenate or serrate. 18 Salix flabellaris
+ Rachis of the female catkin glabrous; cakin 7.5-12.7 mm long; leaf margin entire. 19 Salix lindleyana
4 (2) Branches long drooping, tree with a ‘weeping’ habit. (5)
+ Branches erect spreading, not drooping. (6)
+ Lamina more than 11 times as long as broad. (5)
+ Lamina not as above. (6)
+ Catkins lateral, terminal on short leafy shoots, slightly loosely flowered, 10-45 mm long; rachis hairy; lamina elliptic, obovate or suborbicular, 7-35 x 5-24 mm. 18 Salix flabellaris
+ Catkins terminal, only few flowered 7.5-12.7 mm long; rachis glabrous, lamina oblong, obovate lanceolate, 5-21 x 5-8 mm. 19 Salix lindleyana
5 (3) Filaments glabrous. (6)
+ Filaments hairy at the base. (17)
+ Leaves in the catkin producing region much smaller. Nectary one, longer than the stipe. 13 Salix babylonica
+ Leaves in the catkin producing region ± of the same size. Nectaries 1-2 per flower, equalling the fruit stipe (0.2-0.8 mm). 12 Salix alba
+ Leaf (1.5)-4-8.5 cm x 3-10 mm. 7 Salix blakii
+ Leaf 2-4 cm x 0.2-0.3 (0.5) cm. 3 Salix wilhelmsiana
6 (4) Filaments partly or completely united. (7)
+ Filaments free. (9)
+ Bract, ovary and fruit not as above. (7)
+ Lamina 6-7(-8) times as long as broad (7)
+ Lamina 5 times or less as long as broad. (8)
+ Bract, ovary and fruit reddish violet. 11 Salix karelinii
7 (6) Petiole 2-10 mm, lamina 7 mm or more broad. (8)
+ Branches not covered by the white bloom. (8)
+ Branches with white bloom, lamina margin serrulate. 5 Salix capusii
+ Branches mostly covered with white bloom, stipe of the ovary c. 1 mm long. 5 Salix capusii
+ Petiole 1-2 mm, lamina 2-3 mm broad. 3 Salix wilhelmsiana
+ Branches not as above, margin minutely acutely toothed. 4 Salix koeieana
8 (6) Twigs not as above; leaf surfaces not differently coloured.
+ Fruiting catkin >1 cm long. (9)
+ Lamina silky tomentose or villous at least on one side. (9)
+ Lamina not as above. (11)
+ Twigs dark brown or purplish; adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces differently coloured. 11 Salix karelinii
+ Fruiting catkin c. 1 cm long. 26 Salix nuristanica
9 (6) Twigs and leaves silvery or grey tomentose. (10)
+ Twigs glabrous or juvenile branchlets white, pilose; one year old branchlets glabrous; leaves not as above. (14)
+ Lamina not as above. (10)
+ Lamina (linear-) lanceolate, obovate, villous.
+ Lamina linear, lanceolate or oblong to ovate-oblong, not villous. (10)
+ Lamina ovate or elliptic-oblong, tip obtuse, sometimes acute; stigma subsessile. 9a Salix denticulata subsp. denticulata
10 (9) Lamina less than ? as broad as long. (11)
+ Leaf lanceolate to linear lanceolate or ovate lanceolate or elliptic or broadly elliptic, tip not oblique. (11)
+ Lamina linear, lanceolate, (5)-12-20 x 0.5-2-(4) cm, lateral veins 25-30 pairs. 20 Salix viminalis
+ Lamina about half as broad as long; margin sinuate-erose; filaments >= 7 mm. 22 Salix aegyptiaca
+ Leaf elliptic or oblong-obovate, tip shortly acuminate, usually oblique. 23 Salix fedtschenkoi
+ Lamina broadly lanceolate, oblong to ovate-oblong, 4.5-14 x 1-2.5 cm, lateral veins 16-18-(20) pairs. 21 Salix turanica
11 (8) Male catkin sessile or subsessile. (12)
+ Male catkin pedunculate. (13)
+ Fruiting catkin 5 cm or more in length. (12)
+ Fruiting catkin mostly less than 5 cm in length. (14)
+ Leaf green above, paler or lighter below. (12)
+ Leaf not as above. (13)
12 (11) Fruiting catkin 10 cm or less in length stipules < 1 cm long. (13)
+ Leaf 15-20 x 0.5-2-(4) cm, lateral veins 25-30 pairs, male catkin 2.5-3 x 1.5 cm. 20 Salix viminalis
+ Stipules conspicuous, semicordate with gland-tipped teeth; petiole 5-18 mm. 2 Salix tetrasperma
+ Stipules minute caducous; petiole 2.5-9 mm. 1 Salix acmophylla
+ Leaf 4.5-14 x 1-2.5 cm, lateral veins 16-18 (-20) pairs; male catkin 2.5-5 x 1-1.5 cm. 21 Salix turanica
+ Fruiting catkin 10-18 cm in length; stipules up to 1.3 cm long. 16 Salix dolichostachya
13 (11) Branches pendulous. (14)
+ Branches not pendulous. (15)
+ Male catkin at anthesis c. 1.5-2.5 x 0.8-1-(1.2) cm.
+ Fruiting catkin lax; fruit stipe 0.5-3 mm, capsule 3.5-5 mm long. 2 Salix tetrasperma
+ Male catkin at anthesis c. (1.5)-2.5-3-(4) x 1-1.5 cm. 17 Salix wallichiana
+ Fruiting catkin not lax; fruit stipe 0.1-0.8 mm, capsule 4-6 mm long. 6 Salix pycnostachya
14 (9) Leaf exstipulate, tip obtuse, mucronate.
+ Leaf stipulate, tip acute or acuminate. (15)
+ Lamina not as above. (15)
+ Young branchlets glabrous. 13 Salix babylonica
+ Young branchlets tomentose; young leaves silvery sericeous, rarely subglabrescent. 12 Salix alba
+ Lamina broadly elliptic, shortly acuminate. 14 Salix excelsa
15 (13) Leaf tip obliquely acuminate. (16)
+ Stipules caducous. (16)
+ Fruit stipe 0.4-1.8 (-2.5) mm, capsule 3-5.5 mm. 1 Salix acmophylla
+ Fruit stipe 0.1-0.8 mm, capsule 4-6 mm. 6 Salix pycnostachya
+ Stipules, not caducous, glandular dentate. 8 Salix sericocarpa
+ Leaf tip acute. 16 Salix dolichostachya
16 (1) Lamina not as above. Capsule <= 7 mm. (17)
+ Young branchlets tomentose; young leaves silvery sericeous, rarely subglabrous. 12 Salix alba
+ Lamina about half as broad as long; margin sinuate-erose. Capsule 7-9 mm. 22 Salix aegyptiaca
+ Twigs not as above, adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces not differently coloured. 23 Salix fedtschenkoi
+ Twigs dark brown, purplish, adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces differently coloured. 11 Salix karelinii
+ Young branchlets glabrous, shiny; leaves slightly pilose or appressed pubescent, glabrescent to subglabrous. 6 Salix pycnostachya
17 (3) Lamina not as above. (18)
+ Stipules semicordate or reniform. (18)
+ Stipules not as above. (22)
+ Filaments free. (18)
+ Filaments partly or completely connate. (27)
+ Lamina elliptic to subrhomboidal, rarely ovate, narrowed at the base, tip shortly acuminate (capsule stipe 1-3 mm). 15 Salix iliensis
18 (17) Lamina not as above. (19)
+ Lamina not as above. (19)
+ Lamina not as above. (19)
+ Lamina about half as broad as long; margin sinuate-erose. 22 Salix aegyptiaca
+ Lamina elliptic, oblong or obovate, 2.5-6.5 x 1.2-2.4 cm, tip obtuse to acute. 9 Salix denticulata
+ Lamina elliptic, oblong or ovate, 2.5-6.5 x 1.2-2.4 cm, tip obtuse or acute. 9b Salix denticulata subsp. hazarica
19 (18) Lamina not as above. (20)
+ Branches not covered by white bloom. (20)
+ Lamina not as above. (20)
+ Lamina green glabrous above, pale beneath. 2 Salix tetrasperma
+ Branches mostly covered by white bloom. 5 Salix capusii
+ Lamina elliptic to subrhomboidal, narrowed at base, shortly acuminate. 15 Salix iliensis
20 (19) Lamina 5 cm or more long. (21)
+ Leaf silky on the lower side. (21)
+ Leaf not silky on the lower side. (24)
+ Petiole 5-10-16(-17) mm, lamina silky when young, persistently silky or nearly glabrous when mature or hairy above on the midrib, glabrous beneath. (21)
+ Petiole 3-5 mm; lamina pilose, becoming glabrous. 15 Salix iliensis
+ Lamina less than 5 cm long. 25 Salix sclerophylla
21 (20) Branches drooping. (22)
+ Branches erect. (23)
+ Catkin 1.5-5 cm long. (22)
+ Catkin 5-8 cm long. 17 Salix wallichiana
+ Branches silky tomentose. Lamina entire or serrulate. 17 Salix wallichiana
+ Young branches pubescent, one year old subglabrous to glabrous. Lamina serrate. 16 Salix dolichostachya
22 (17) Leaf (linear-) lanceolate, obovate, villous. Capsule 5-7 mm long.
+ Leaf linear, lanceolate or oblong to ovate-oblong, not villous. Capsule 4-6 mm long. (23)
+ Lamina green above, pale beneath. (23)
+ Lamina not as above. (25)
+ Male catkin up to 2.5 cm long. 13 Salix babylonica
+ Male catkin 2.5-5 cm long. 12 Salix alba
23 (21) Leaf <= 3 cm broad. (24)
+ Leaf >= 3 cm broad. (26)
+ Lamina not as above. (24)
+ Leaf linear, lanceolate, (5)-12-20 x 0.5-2-(4) cm, lateral veins 25-30 pairs. 20 Salix viminalis
+ Lamina linear lanceolate, acute-acuminate, 5-16 x (0.5)-0.7-2 cm. 1 Salix acmophylla
+ Leaf broadly lanceolate, oblong to ovate-oblong, 4.5-14 x 1-2.5 cm, lateral veins 16-18-(20) pairs. 21 Salix turanica
24 (20) Catkin 2 cm or less long. (25)
+ Catkin 3 cm or more long. (28)
+ Stipules caducous, small, lanceolate or subulate. (25)
+ Twigs dark brown or purplish, lamina ovate, ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, base rotund to subcordate, tip briefly acuminate, generally oblique. 11 Salix karelinii
+ Twigs not purplish. Lamina elliptic, oblong or ovate, base not rotund to subcordate, tip obtuse to acute not oblique. 9 Salix denticulata
+ Stipules up to 1.3 cm long, semicordate, serrate. 16 Salix dolichostachya
25 (22) Lamina generally more than 1 cm broad. (27)
+ Lamina 9 mm or less broad. (26)
+ Lamina tip shortly acuminate, oblique. (26)
+ Lamina tip not as above. (27)
+ Catkin 3-4 mm broad before emergence of anthers; bracts usually less than 1 mm broad; anther 0.5-0.6 (-0.7) mm. 12 Salix alba
+ Catkin 4-5 mm broad before emergence of anthers; bracts usually more than 1 mm broad; anthers (0.7-) 0.8-0.9 mm. 14 Salix excelsa
26 (23) Stipules minute. 17 Salix wallichiana
+ Lamina glabrous. 23 Salix fedtschenkoi
+ Branches pubescent or silky, rarely glabrate. Leaf exstipute, hairy on the sides, becoming glabrescent, 2-4 mm broad. 3 Salix wilhelmsiana
+ Branches glabrous. Leaves stipulate, glabrous or the lower side in young leaves scantily silky, 3-7-(9) mm broad. 4 Salix koeieana
+ Stipules up to 1.3 cm. 16 Salix dolichostachya
+ Lamina villous on both the sides. 26 Salix nuristanica
27 (17) Branches not covered by white bloom. (28)
+ Young branches reddish brown, reddish black or purplish red. (28)
+ Young branches not as above. (29)
+ Branches mostly covered by white bloom. 5 Salix capusii
+ Lamina elliptic, ovate or ovate to suborbicular. Stigma 4-lobed. Glands 2. 25 Salix sclerophylla
+ Lamina oblong, elliptic or lanceolate. Stigma entire or 2-lobed. Gland 1. 10 Salix caesia
28 (24) Catkin 2 cm or less long. (29)
+ Catkin more than 2 cm long. (30)
+ Lamina 1 cm or less broad. (29)
+ Lamina generally broader than 1 cm. (30)
+ Leaf elliptic, ovate or obovate to suborbicular, 2-3.4 x 1-2 cm. 25 Salix sclerophylla
+ Leaf oblong, elliptic or lanceolate, 0.5-3 x 0.3-1 cm. 10 Salix caesia
29 (27) Lamina not as above. (30)
+ Ovary and capsule stipitate, stigmas 4 as upright lobes. 7 Salix blakii
+ Lamina broadly elliptic, narrowed towards the base, tip shortly acuminate. 14 Salix excelsa
+ Ovary and capsule sessile, stigma entire or bilobed. 3 Salix wilhelmsiana
+ Young branches reddish brown or reddish black; leaves oblong, elliptic or lanceolate, catkin sessile. 10 Salix caesia
+ Young branches not as above; leaves narrowly lanceolate, peduncle 1-4 mm long. 4 Salix koeieana
30 (28) Lamina not as above. (31)
+ Stipules linear, lanceolate. Stigmas 2-4, shorter or equal to the style. Capsule stipe 0, 1-10 mm long; fruit 4-6 mm long. (31)
+ Stipules absent; lamina silky tomentose on both the sides or glabrescent above.
+ Stipules present; lamina silky beneath becoming glabrous on both sides or glabrous except on the midrib above, pubescent below. (31)
+ Stipules minute or semicordate, coarsely toothed. Stigmas 2-4, longer than the style. Capsule stipe 0.7-2 mm long; fruit 5-9 mm long. 17 Salix wallichiana
+ Lamina oblong, elliptic or obovate, 2.5-6.5x 1.2-2.4 cm, obtuse or acute. 9 Salix denticulata
31 (30) Filaments completely connate. (32)
+ Stipules not persistent. 6 Salix pycnostachya
+ Stipules not persistent. 6 Salix pycnostachya
+ Stipules persistent. 8 Salix sericocarpa
+ Stipules persistent. 8 Salix sericocarpa
+ Filaments partly connate. 8 Salix sericocarpa
32 (31) Lamina (1.5)-4-8.5 x 0.3-1 cm. 7 Salix blakii
+ Lamina (2.3)-4-10 x 0.5-2.5 cm. 6 Salix pycnostachya
9999 Note: Salix nuristanica A. K. Skvortsov could not be keyed due to lack of male plants.
 
 
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