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Published In: Characteres Generum Plantarum 23. 1775. (29 Nov 1775) (Char. Gen. Pl.) Name publication detail
 

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/16/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Taxon Profile     (Last Modified On 6/26/2012)
Description: Hermaphroditic or andromonoecious, unarmed, glabrous to pubescent, terrestrial, epiphytic or hemi-epiphytic, evergreen trees or shrubs (rarely lianas). Stems monocaulous to well branched, pachycaulous. Leaves alternate, petiolate, the bases clasping with connate and often ligulate stipules; blades palmately compound to bundle compound (rarely unifolioate or twice compound); leaflets linear to lanceolate, ovate, elliptical, obovate, or oblanceolate, membranaceous to coriaceous, entire to variously toothed or lobed, sessile or petiolulate. Inflorescences terminal or pseudolateral, erect or pendant, paniculate, racemose, or simple to compound umbellate, the ultimate units umbellules, capitula, racemules, or spicules; bracts present or absent; pedicels slender to stout; unarticulated. Calyx forming a low rim or with ca. 5 small teeth; petals (4 or)5(–7+), valvate, free or occasionally calyptrate; stamens typically isomerous with petals, but up to 250+ in 1–several whorls, thecae 2 or 4 per anther; carpels (2 or)5–20(–100+); ovary inferior to half-inferior, styles free to fully connate; the disc depressed to flat or nearly hemispherical. Fruits drupes, glabrous or pubescent, obloid to globose, ellipsoid, or ovoid, terete to laterally compressed, the endocarps crustaceous to boney. Endosperm uniform, rugose, or ruminate. 2n = 24, 48.
Distribution: Pantropical and subtropical, in humid forests, seasonal forests, and dry, semi-arid, tropical-montane, and tropical-alpine habitats. Commonly cultivated as ornamentals (especially S. actinophylla, S. arboricola, and S. elegantissima), and in some regions as timber trees (e.g., S. schweliensis) and folk medicines (e.g., S. delavayi). The largest genus of the family (with many subgeneric and sectional groups recognized informally), but polyphyletic, with five distinct lineages, one each in the Neotropics, Africa-Madagascar, and SE Asia, and two groups in the SW Pacific (see Plunkett et al., 2005).

 

Lower Taxa
 
 
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