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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 9/26/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 9/26/2013)
Genus DIOCLEA H.B.K.
Contributor Richard H. Maxwell
PlaceOfPublication Nov. Gen. Sp. P1. 6: 437, tab. 576. 1824.
Note LECTOTYPE: D. sericea H.B.K.
Description Vines, woody, in clumps, or high-climbing lianas. Leaves trifoliolate, the lat- eral leaflets usually smaller than the terminal, the margins entire, revolute, with variable pubescence; stipels setaceous to filiform; stipules lanceolate or triangu- late, produced below insertion or non-produced. Inflorescences erect, usually single and axillary, fasciculate racemose, tuberculate; bracts linear to triangulate, persistent to caducous; bracteoles ovate, flabellate to orbicular, persistent or caducous. Flowers shades of violet, purple and blue; calyx tube 4-5 lobed, pu- bescent within, glabrous or variously pubescent without, the upper lobes partially or completely fused; lamina of the standard oblanceolate to somewhat orbicular, emarginate, basally biauriculate and usually bicallose, glabrous or puberulent, carnose or membranous, the wings free, the lamina obliquely oblong to obliquely ovate, auriculate, occasionally with a spur, the keel petals fused distally, the lamina triangulate to somewhat obliquely oblong, auriculate; stamens 10, the vexillary filament free ca. 3 mm, basally, then fused to the staminal sheath, all the filaments free distally, the anthers dimorphic or monomorphic; pistil com- pressed, geniculate, the ovary villous, the upper style glabrous, the stigma cap- itate, glabrous. Fruits oblong, flat, compressed or turgid, with variable dehis- cence, pubescence variable; seeds large, few, soft-cuboidal or hard-turgid; if small, then many, hard and flat, oblong to sub-orbicular; the hilum linear or short- oblong, encircling ca. '/5 to nearly 1/2 or to ca. 3/4 the testa.
Distribution a pantropical genus of about 50 species with the great majority in tropical South America.
Reference Pittier, H. 1944. Leguminosas de Venezuela, I. Papilionaiceas. Min. Agric. Cria. Ser. Bot. Bol. Tec. 5. Caracas. Burkart, A. 1970. Las Leguminosas Faseolas argentinas de los generos Mucuna, Dioclea y Camptosema. Darwiniana 16: 175-218.
Key a. Large coarse vines, frequently high-climbing forest lianas; stipules large, produced; anthers dimorphic (5 perfect and 5 imperfect); bracts from 6-20 mm long, caducous or occasionally semipersistent; seeds large, turgid or compressed, 1-4(-5); lamina of the standard carnose, glabrous; keel petals rostrate. b. Fruits turgid, fleshy; seeds soft, cuboidal, the hilum encircling ca. 1/2 the testa; leaflets with the primary lateral veins in 10-14 pairs, the apices abruptly elongate; bracts 6- 10 mm long; keel petals sharply beaked or hooded. c. Leaflets papyraceous, non-rugose above, sparsely pubescent below; calyx yel- lowish, sparsely pubescent with short, dark brown hairs; pedicels ca. 9 mm long; stipules ca. 15 mm long ...... 5. D. pulchra cc. Leaflets coriaceous, rugose above, densely pubescent below; calyx darker, with dense ferruginous pubescence; pedicels ca. 5 mm long; stipules ca. 25 mm long ...... 1. D. aurea bb. Fruits coriaceous to ligneous; seeds hard, globose, the hilum encircling 2/3_4/5 the testa; leaflets with the primary lateral veins in ca. 8(-10) pairs, apices usually acute; bracts 15-30 mm long; keel petals with obtuse or truncate beaks. d. Flowers 2.3-3.0 cm long, borne on pedicels ca. 7 mm long; fruits ca. 3 cm thick, the upper suture paralleled by thick ribs, the lower margin somewhat constricted between the seeds, the exocarp obliquely fissured; the bracts spreading, to ca. 30 mm long, ciliate; seeds ca. 2 cm thick, reddish, frequently with a scale-like piece of rim aril persisting ...... 3. D. megacarpa dd. Flowers 1.5-2.0 cm long, borne on pedicels 2-6 mm long; fruits ca. 2 cm thick, the upper suture paralleled by thin wings, the lower margin non-constricted between the seeds, the exocarp without distinct oblique fissures; bracts erect or reflexed, 9-20 mm long, with appressed pubescence; seeds ca. 1.5 cm thick, dark, frequently with a woody piece of funiculus persisting. e. Inflorescences, flower buds and young fruit indumentum nigrescent fer- ruginous; bracts erect, linear, caducous; fruits with the pedicel attachment at the-upper suture, the upper margin usually straight; bracteoles usually caducous ...... 8. D. wilsonii ee. Inflorescences, flower buds and young fruit indumentum fulvous, occa- sionally ferruginous; bracts reflexed, usually lanceolate, semipersistent; fruits with the pedicel attachment median, the upper margin frequently downcurved distally; bracteoles usually persistent ...... 6. D. reflexa aa. Smaller woody vines (except D. paniculata), frequently in clumps in open scrub or forest edges; stipules small, non-produced; anthers uniform (10 perfect); bracts ca. 3 mm long, persistent; seeds small, flat, 5-12 (except 2-4 in D. paniculata); lamina of the standard membranous, puberulent or glabrous; keel petals not rostrate. f. Smaller woody vines, frequently common in open areas; leaflets papyraceous; flowers 15-25 mm long, standard puberulent; inflorescences usually single; fruits oblong, the upper suture paralleled by distinct ribs or wings to either side; seeds oblong rounded, 5-12, the hilum long linear. g. Calyx tube glabrous; pedicels usually longer than 5 mm long; bracteoles sub- orbicular, 6-10 x 4-6 mm, caducous; keel petals with the median portion of the upper margin fimbriate ...... 7. D. virgata gg. Calyx tube pubescent; pedicels ca. 5 mm long, usually less; bracteoles lanceolate to ovate, ca. 3 x 2 mm, persistent or caducous; keel petals with a wide median portion of the upper margin variously dentate or serrate ......  2. D. guianensis ff. Higher climbing lianas, along rivers or in moist forest areas; leaflets rigid, brittle; flowers 10-12 mm long, standard glabrous; inflorescences single, double or occasion- ally branched; fruits usually elliptic, the upper suture paralleled by shallow ribs ca. 1 mm to either side; seeds oval, 2-4, the hilum short oblong ...... 4. D. paniculata
 
 
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