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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/5/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 6/5/2013)
Genus Isocarpha R. Brown
PlaceOfPublication Trans. Linn. Soc. London 12: 110. 1817.
Note TYPE: Calea oppositifolia L.
Description Erect perennial herbs, branching mostly from base, the bases sometimes creeping. Leaves opposite or alternate, sessile or with narrowly winged petioles, with or without basal auricles; blades slightly to strongly trinervate near base, the margins entire to slightly toothed, usually with numerous glandular punc- tations on surface. Inflorescence a lax panicle, sometimes leafy, the branches with heads single or in small clusters. Heads discoid, often becoming elongate and amentiform usually with more than 100 florets; involucral bracts eximbricate, in 1-2 series, lanceolate; receptacle highly conical, florets subtended by paleas resembling involucral bracts; corolla narrowly funnelform with a distinct tube, the glands on outer surface mostly on tube and lobes, the lobes 5, triangular, longer than wide, not papillose or with some papillae on inner surface near margin, the corolla cells elongate with sinuous walls; anther collar slender, the cells mostly short-oblong with walls prominently annulate, the exothecial cells subquadrate, the anther appendage longer than wide; style base with distinct enlargement, the style branches without glands, the appendages rather short and tapering, often strongly curled, laxly long-papillose. Achenes prismatic with 5 ribs, base narrowed with or without bristles; carpopodium short, asymmetric, with small quadrate cells in few to many rows, the basal row not enlarged; pappus lacking. Pollen 18-20 microns in diameter, with short spines.
Habit herbs
Distribution a genus of about 12 species ranging from the southwestern United States through Mexico and Central America to the West Indies and South America. Only one species has been collected in Panama.
Note The genus Isocarpha has traditionally been placed in the tribe Heliantheae and the members of the genus show a number of the characters commonly used to distinguish that tribe, including, shorter and more laxly papillose style appendages, densely paleaceous receptacles, and a reduced pappus. Nevertheless, the genus is without close relatives in the Heliantheae and close relatives are  evident in the Eupatorieae. In the latter tribe the genus Ayapana has the same form of style appendage and one species of Ayapana has a reduced pappus. Ayapana is, in turn, related by carpopodium structure and the usually capillary pappus to other members of the Eupatorieae with larger style appendages. The proper relationship of Isocarpha is confirmed by the structure of the anther and the style base. The annulated cells of the collar, the exothecial cells with thickenings on all walls, the flat appendage composed of only two cell layers, the pollen 18-20 /% in diameter, and the papillose to hirsute style base of one species are all characters common in the Eupatorieae but unknown in the Heliantheae.
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