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Published In: Verhandlungen der Kaiserlich-Königlichen Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien 38: 49. 1888. (Mar 1888) (Verh. K.K. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien) Name publication detailView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Synonym Text: Scirpus sect. Schoenoplectus H.G.L. Reichenb., Icon. Fl. Germ. 8: 40. 1846.
General/Distribution: A genus with c. 60 species, distributed on all continents; represented in Pakistan by 11 species.


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Annuals or perennials. Rhizome creeping, or short, with or without stolons. Stem from 10 cm to more than 2 m, terete or trigonous, smooth. Leaves mostly reduced to 2-3, soft, ephemeral sheaths; ligule probably allways present. Inflorescence pseudolateral, from group of spikes to anthelodium; lowest bract forming continuation to stem, erect or later often spreading, or reflexed. Glumes spirally arranged. Flowers bisexual, with or without perianth bristles, bristles retrorsely barbed or plumose, stamens 2-3, stigmas 2 or 3. Nut trigonous or bi-convex, compressed, surface transversely rugulose or smooth; amphicarpous nuts present in some groups. Resembling Scirpus s. str. and Actinoscirpus, but leaf blades reduced and inflorescence smaller, pseudolateral; perianth bristles present or missing.

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1 (1) Perennials with long horizontal rhizome or stolons, 50-150. cm. (1)
+ Annuals, or perennials with short rhizome, 15-70 cm. (2)
2 (1) Perianth bristles retrorsely barbed or reduced. (3)
+ Perianth bristles plumose. 4 Schoenoplectus litoralis
3 (2) Stem terete. (4)
+ Stem sharply trigonous. 2 Schoenoplectus triqueter
4 (3) Perianth bristles well developed, stigmas 2 or 3. 1 Schoenoplectus lacustris
+ Perianth bristles reduced or weakly developed, stigmas 3. 3 Schoenoplectus corymbosus
5 (5) Perianth bristles present. (5)
+ Perianth bristles absent; when occasionally present, then weakly developed, unequal. (6)
6 (5) Perennial with short rhizome, or annual, stem sharply trigonous. (6)
+ Annual, stem more or less terete, not sharply angular. 5 Schoenoplectus juncoides
7 Plants 40-70 cm, inflorescence formed by 6-15 spikes, glumes 2.7-3.2 mm, nut 1.7-1.9 x 1.4-1.5 mm. 7 Schoenoplectus mucronatus
+ Plants 10-20 cm, inflorescence formed by 1-3 spikes, glumes 3.4-3.6 mm, nut 2 x 1.7 mm. 6 Schoenoplectus rechingeri
8 Stem not septate. (9)
+ Stem septate. 8 Schoenoplectus praelongatus
9 (8) Only one of bracts leaf-like, green; all spikes sessile (seldom peduncled); leaf-blades reduced to a mucro. (10)
+ Two bracts leaf-like, lowest bract more than 10 cm, next higher bract reflexed, to 15 mm; as a rule at least one spike peduncled; laef blades at uppermost sheath mostly c. 0.5 cm, occasionally up to 10 cm. 9 Schoenoplectus lateriflorus
10 (9) Glumes 2.8-3.6 mm, golden brown, glossy, not keeled; nuts 1.2-1.3 x 0.8-1 mm. 10 Schoenoplectus lupulinus
+ Glumes 2.1-2.7 mm, yellowish brown or brown, keeled; nuts 1.3-1.6 x 1-1.3 mm. 11 Schoenoplectus supinus
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