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Published In: Species Plantarum 2: 683. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Distribution: Distribution: About 150 species in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres. Of these c. 2/3rd are restricted to America.
Comment/Acknowledgements: In Pakistan it is represented by 12 specific and infraspecific taxa.


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Annual to perennial herbs, undershrubs or shrubs, mostly pubescent. Leaves subsessile to long petiolate, stipulate, alternate, entire to toothed or lobed. Flowers axillary, solitary, fasciculate or by reduction of terminal leaves raceme or panicle, sessile or pedicellate. Epicalyx generally absent. Calyx campanulate. Corolla yellow, white, pink or orange. Staminal column usually included, hairy or glabrous, divided above into numerous antheriferous filaments. Carpels 5-10 (-14); ovary as many loculed as the number of carpel, each locule 1-ovuled; style branches the same number as of carpels; stigma capitate. Fruit usually globular pubescent or glabrous, awned or muticous; mericarps smooth or retriculate, dehiscent or indehiscent. Seed 1 per mericarp, glabrous or hairy; cotyledons curved.

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1 Mericarps generally 5 (2)
+ Mericarps generally 7-10 (6)
2 (1) Branches, petiole and pedicel with stellate and simple, spreading hairs, leaves palminerved. Mericarps smooth, mucronate (3)
+ Branches, petiole and pedicel with stellate hairs only. Leaves penninerved. Mericarps reticulate, awned (4)
3 (2) Plant prostrate or subprostrate, eglandular hairy Sida cordata
+ Plant erect, glandular hairy Sida mysorensis
4 (2) Spiny structure absent. Mericarps with a pair of convergent apical awns (5)
+ 1-3 spiny structures present on the stem at the base of petiole. Mericarps with a pair of divergent apical awns Sida spinosa
5 (4) Flowers usually solitary. Pedicel in fruit 1-2 cm long Sida alba
+ Flowers fasciculate. Pedicel in fruit usually less than 1 cm long Sida yunnanensis
6 (1) Mericarps usually 7-8, indehiscent; awns c.1 mm long, not retrorsely hairy (7)
+ Mericarps usually 9-10, dehiscent; awns 3-5 mm long, retrorsely hairy Sida cordifolia
7 (6) Calyx 4-6 mm long, 3-4 mm broad, tube not or subangular. Fruit never completely enclosed by calyx (8)
+ Calyx 6-10 mm long, 5-7 mm broad, tube prominently angular. Fruit completely enclosed by calyx. (flowers yellow) Sida pakistanica
8 (7) Flowers solitary, pale yellow. Fruiting pedicel 1.5-3 cm long, with a joint at the apex
+ Flowers usually paired, white. Fruiting pedicel usually 0.5-1 cm long, without or with a joint in the middle Sida ovata
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