Perennial herbs with alternate leaves. Flowers ebracteate, in simple, terminal racemes, blue or blue-purple or shades of it. Corolla 5-lobed; tube as long as or much longer than calyx; throat scales absent or present; basal scales generally present. Stamens 5, exserted or not. Nutlets 4, keeled ventrally.
The monotypic genus Decalipedanthus comprising of Decalipedanthus sericophyllus was described and included by Riedl in the tribe Lithospermae, because of the presence of a flat gynobase and a 2 fid stigma. Because of lack of fruiting material in the Type specimen examined, I was unable to verify the nature of the gynobase (areole). The stigma however on examination proved to be only slightly bibbed or sub-capitate.
The genus in a combination of characters has marked similarities with Pseudomertensia and in particular with Pseudomertensia parvifolia (Moltkia parvifolia; Mertensia exserta): A similar inflorescence, exserted stamens, lack of throat scales, 10 basal or nectar scales and a similar geographical range. Although Riedl described faucal (throat) scales in his new genus, he seems to have confused them with nectar or basal scales. Ten such basal scales are present in the corolla tube of Decalipedanthus and Pseudomertensia; they also occur in various other genera as Onosma, Myosotis, Nonea, Lappula, Echium etc. (see figs 26-29, 30-31, 39, 40). These scales appear to have no taxonomic value and serve simply to protect the underlying nectar.