1. Euclidium syriacum (Linnaeus) W. T. Aiton, Hort. Kew., ed. 2, 4: 74. 1812; Anastatica syriaca Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 2, 2: 895. 1763; Bunias syriaca (Linnaeus) M. Bieberstein, Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 2: 88. 1808; Ornithorhynchium syriacum (Linnaeus) Roehling, Deutschl. Fl., ed. 2, 2: 356. 1812. TYPE: “Habitat in Syriae teclis, ruderibus,” (lectotype designated by Hedge in Cafferty & Jarvis (2002: 531), Herb. Linn. No. 821.3, LINN).
Herbs, annual, scabrous pubescent throughout; trichomes to 1 mm. Stems (0.4–)1–4(–4.5) dm, often with ascending rigid branches, mostly branched near base and about middle. Lower and middle cauline leaves with petioles (0.2–)0.5–2(–2.5) cm; leaf blade oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or elliptic, (1–)1.5–7(–9) x (0.3–)0.7–2(–3) cm, base cuneate, margin entire, dentate, or repand, apex acute or obtuse; uppermost leaves sessile or subsessile, similar in shape to lower ones, reduced in size upward. Fruiting pedicels 0.5–1(–1.2) mm, stout and nearly half as wide as fruit, appressed to rachis. Sepals 0.6–0.9 x 0.2–0.4 mm, sparsely pubescent; petals white, narrowly spatulate, 0.9–1.3 x 0.1–0.2 mm, apex emarginate; claw 0.4–0.6 mm; filaments 0.5–0.8 mm; anthers 0.1–0.2 mm. Fruit ovoid, 2–2.5 x 1.5–2 mm, erect, appressed to rachis, 2-seeded, scabrous; replum expanded and to 1.5 mm wide basally, narrowed to apex; style subconical, 1–1.8 mm, curved away from rachis, sparsely pubescent. Seeds brown, oblong, 1.3–1.7 x 0.8–1.2 mm. 2n = 14.
Habitat: waste places, roadsides, flats, fields.
Elevation: 0–3500 m.
Distribution: native of SE Europe (Austria, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Ukraine, SW and C Asia (Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, China, Georgia, India, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Pakistan, Syria, Tajikistan, Turkemnistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan; naturatlized elsewhere, including Australia and the United States (California, Colorado, Idaho, Oregon, utah, Washington, Wyoming).