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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 2/7/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 2/7/2013)
Family MENISPERMACEAE
Contributor D. G. RHODES
Description Woody or subherbaceous twining or scrambling shrubs, rarely small trees. Leaves alternate, simple, entire to crenate, pinnately or palmately nerved, petiolate, exstipulate. Flowers dichlamydeous, dioecious. Staminate inflorescence axillary, frequently fasciculate, basically cymose, frequently racemiform or paniculiform, rarely spiciform. Staminate flowers actinomorphic: Sepals 2- to 3-merous, usually 6, free or rarely united at the base, imbricate or valvate, the interior cycle usually conspicuously larger than the exterior; petals 2- to 3-merous, usually 6, frequently minute, free or rarely united, imbricate or valvate; stamens opposite and equaling the petals in number, the filaments free or variously coherent, the anthers often immersed within the connective, dehiscing longitudinally. Pistillate inflorescence axillary, frequently fasciculate, cymose or racemose, Pistillate flowers actinomorphic, rarely zygomorphic: Sepals 3-merous, usually 6, rarely reduced to 1; petals usually 6, rarely reduced to 1, usually minute; staminodia frequently 6 or absent; carpels 3 or 6, rarely 1, free or connivent; style often recurved or inconspicuous; stigma lingulate, radiate-incised or 3-lobed; ovule 1, amphitropous. Drupes free, sessile or stipitate, erect or hippocrepiform; exocarp membranous or subcoriaceous; mesocarp more or less pulpy; endocarp chartaceous or osseous, often verrucose and ribbed, rarely smooth; embryo usually curved, rarely erect; albumen copious, scanty or absent, frequently ruminate.
Habit shrubs trees
Distribution A family of about 70 genera and 400 species. North and South America, Africa, northern Australia, Indo-Malayan region, eastern Asia and the Mediterranean basin.
Key a. Staminate flower with 6-18 sepals, the petals free, the stamens 6, the filaments more or less connate or free; pistillate flower with sepals and petals similar to the staminate. b. Old stems conspicuously lenticellate; leaves as broad as long or nearly so, membranous or subcoriaceous; sepals 6-18. c. Staminate inflorescence paniculiform; leaves rarely under 12 cm. long, white and woolly below; carpels 6; drupes 6 (or few aborted), exocarp scarcely fleshy, endocarp chartaceous-coriaceous, essentially smooth, exalbuminous - 1. CHONDRODENDRON cc. Staminate inflorescence racemiform, rarely paniculiform; leaves rarely over 12 cm. long, pubescent or glabrous below; carpels 3; drupes 1-3, exocarp fleshy, endocarp verrucose-ribbed, albuminous. ....-. - .......-- .. 2. ODONTOCARYA bb. Old stems not conspicuously lenticellate; leaves longer than broad, cori- aceous; sepals 6. d. Petals so greatly involute as to almost conceal the stamens fixed on the claw; leaves rarely exceeding 10 cm. in length; drupe rarely less than 16 mm. in length, albuminous - 3. ANOMOSPERAMUM dd. Petals moderately involute, not concealing the stamens; leaves rarely less than 10 cm. in length; drupe rarely exceeding 16 mm. in length, exalbuminous -.. .. 4. IIYPERBAENA aa. Staminate flower with 4 sepals, the petals connate, the stamens 4, the filaments coherent forming a staminal column; pistillate flower with 1 sepal and 1 petal ...................... 5. CISSAMPELOS
 
 
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