Home Flora of Pakistan
Name Search
District Map
Grid Map
Inventory Project
Chenopodiaceae Vent. Search in IPNISearch in NYBG Virtual HerbariumSearch in Flora do Brasil 2020Search in Reflora - Virtual HerbariumSearch in Living Collections Decrease font Increase font Restore font

Publicado en: Tableau du Regne Vegetal 2: 253. 1799. (5 May 1799) (Tabl. Regn. Veg.) Name publication detail

Datos del Proyecto Nombre (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Aceptación : Accepted
Datos del Proyecto     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: H. Freitag, I. C. Hedge, S. M. H. Jafri, G. Kothe-Heinrich, S. Omer & P. Uotila
Contributor Institution:
Authors' institutions:

1 - Morphologie u. Systematik der Pflanzen, Fachbereich Biologie/Chemie Universität Kassel, Heinrich Plett-Str. 40, D-34132 Kassel, Germany.

2 - Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, U.K.

3 - Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi-75270, Pakistan.

4 - Südring 23, 64846 Groß-Zimmern, Germany.

5 - Canadian Museum of Nature, Research Division, 1740 Pink Road, Aylmer, Quebec J9H 5E1, Canada.

6 - Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

General/Distribution: A family of c. 100 genera and over 1200 species, almost cosmopolitan, mostly of saline and arid areas; represented by 35 genera and c. 106 species in Pakistan.


Export To PDF Export To Word
Herbs or shrubs, rarely dwarf trees, mostly xerophytic or halophytic. Leaves well-developed or much reduced, succulent or not, exstipulate. Flowers often greenish, hermaphrodite or unisexual, small, solitary or in clusters, often arranged in spicate or paniculate inflorescences, bracteate and mostly bracteolate. Perianth segments (tepals) 3-5, free or connate, rarely 0, persistent or not. Stamens (1-) 2-5, opposite the tepals, free or basally united into a hypogynous disc, sometimes with distinct interstaminal lobes (“staminodes”). Ovary 1-celled, with a single basal ovule, superior; more rarely semi-inferior; style with 2(-3-4) stigmas. Fruit an utricle or achene, rarely a dehiscent capsule, free or adherent to perianth, sometimes additionally enclosed in the bracteoles (valves); segments of fruiting perianth sometimes winged or appendiculate; seed horizontal or vertical, endosperm nearly or completely absent, perisperm abundant or wanting; embryo, variously curved, spirally or helically twisted.

Export To PDF Export To Word Export To SDD
Switch to indented key format
1 Stems jointed. (2)
+ -Stems not jointed. (6)
2 (1) Perianth segments winged in fruit; plants with prominent tufts of white hairs in leaf axils, base of flowers or glomerules. (3)
+ Perianth segments not winged in fruit; plants without tufts of white hairs in leaf axils, glabrous or slightly papillose. (4)
3 (2) Seeds vertical; annual-perennial herbs or subshrubs. 27 Anabasis
+ Seeds horizontal; shrubs-small trees. (Some growing in sand). 28 Haloxylon
4 (2) Stem glabrous, without papillae, scale-like leaves not papillose-fringed; perianth segments united only in basal part. (5)
+ Stem papillose at least when young; scale-like leaves apically papillose-fringed; perianth segments united for c. ¾ of their length. 19 Halostachys
5 (4) Stem without lateral globular buds; internodes 5-7 mm; spikes not 4-sided, ± cone-like. 18 Arthrocnemum
+ Stem with numerous opposite globular buds giving rise to ± spreading branches; internodes c. 3 mm; spikes prominently 4-sided. 20 Halocnemum
6 (1) At least some part of the plant with branched hairs, either stellate-dendroid, candelabriform or irregularly medifixed (7)
+ Plants with only simple hairs, sometimes barbellate, or papillae or with a meal-like bloom or glabrous. (13)
7 (6) Flowers unisexual (plants monoecious); female flower without a perianth, subtended by two foliaceous bracts. (8)
+ Flowers hermaphrodite with clearly developed perianth segments. (10)
8 (7) Annuals; bracts in fruits without silky hairs, grey-green. (9)
+ Shrub; bract in fruit densely covered with long silky hairs, tawny when dry. 6 Krascheninnikovia
9 (8) Pistillate flowers without perianth; valves with horn-like projections, branches alternate and opposite. 7 Ceratocarpus
+ Pistillate flower with 3-partite perianth; valves without horn-like projections; branches alternate. 8 Axyris
10 (7) Fruiting perianth without wings; annuals. (11)
+ Fruiting perianth with five distinct wings; dwarf shrubs. 23 Salsola
11 (10) Perianth segments 1-5, inconspicuous. (12)
+ Perianth segments 5, conspicuous, showy (white-rosy); branched hairs present. 16 Anthochlamys
12 (11) Leaves not or scarcely mucronate, herbaceous; inflorescence not spiny; perianth segments present or absent, but none 3-lobed. 14 Corispermum
+ Leaves spine-tipped, stiff; inflorescence distinctly spiny; perianth segment one, but 3-lobed. 15 Agriophyllum
13 (6) Leaf axil and the base of flowers or glomerules with ± dense tufts of white hairs; otherwise, plants glabrous or with scabrid papillae; embryo spiral. (14)
+ Leaf axils, flower and glomerule bases either glabrous or with only a few hairs; otherwise plants either glabrous, with hairs, papillae or a meal-like bloom; embryo spiral, horse-shoe-shaped, annular or curved. (22)
14 (13) Leaves all opposite. (15)
+ Leaves alternate or lowermost only opposite. (16)
15 (14) Plant with at least some scabrid papillae; leaves spiny or mucronate; seed horizontal or vertical. 26 Girgensohnia
+ Plants glabrous, with or without a shiny stem; leaves apically obtuse without a bristle or mucro; seed horizontal. 25 Seidlitzia
16 (14) Perianth segments winged in fruit, without spines; leaves herbaceous. (17)
+ Perianth segments in fruit fused and indurated with 1 (-2) prominent long sturdy spines; leaves often represented only by hard spines. 31 Cornulaca
17 (16) Fruiting perianth not thickened and indurated. (18)
+ Fruiting perianth thickened and indurated below the wings. 24 Halothamnus
18 (17) Perianth segments 5, free or nearly free. (19)
+ Perianth deeply 5-lobed, lobes membranous in flower. 35 Noaea
19 (18) Stems whitish throughout, ± terete. (20)
+ Stem green with white or purple lines, often angular. 23 Salsola
20 (19) Annuals or perennials; all 5 perianth segments winged in fruit. (21)
+ Perennial; only 3 (-4) perianth segments winged in fruit; seeds vertical. 33 Agathophora
21 (20) Dwarf annuals; wings developing near apex of perianth segments. 32 Halogeton
+ Taller annuals or perennials; wings present in lower half of perianth segments. 23 Salsola
22 (13) Stamens with prominent, yellow, cream, pink or purple vesicles or appendages near the apex of the connectives. (23)
+ Stamens without or with short inconspicuous apical extensions on the thecae. (27)
23 (22) Fruiting perianth segments without wings, in flower without a transverse line. (24)
+ Fruiting perianth segments winged, in flower segments with a transverse line. 23 Salsola
24 (23) Perianth segments and/or subtending leaf-like bracts not coalescing in fruit. (25)
+ Perianth segment and/or subtending leaf-like bracts coalescing in fruit. (26)
25 (24) Annuals; leaf apex with 1 or a few terminal bristle-like hairs. 30 Halocharis
+ Perennials; leaf apex without terminal bristle-like hairs. 23 Salsola
26 (24) Perianth segments not or scarcely indurating in fruit, subtending bracts indurating both forming a nut-like fruiting disseminule, 2-horned or not. 34 Gamanthus
+ Perianth segments basally indurating and coalescing in fruit forming a flask-like disseminule, not 2-horned. 29 Halimocnemis
27 (22) Perianth segments developing in fruit at least some distinct terminal or lateral spreading wings or spines or protuberances. (28)
+ Perianth segments in fruit without wings or spines or protuberances. (36)
28 (27) Plants with distinct hairs, usually barbellate. (29)
+ Plants without hairs, either glabrous or with papillae or vesicles or with villous hairs in leaf axils. (32)
29 (28) Fruiting perianth segments winged or with horny outgrowths. (29)
+ Fruiting perianth segments with straight or uncinate spiny outgrowths. 12 Bassia
30 (30) Leaves flat; seeds vertical or horizontal; embryo annular or horse-shoe-shaped. (30)
+ Leaves semi-terete or terete; seeds horizontal, rarely vertical; embryo spiral. 23 Salsola
31 Seeds vertical; fruiting perianth segments with apical horns or wings. 11 Panderia
+ Seeds horizontal; fruiting perianth segments variously winged. 13 Kochia
32 (28) Annuals or perennials; all or at least upper leaves alternate. (33)
+ Annuals; all leaves opposite. 26 Girgensohnia
33 (32) Perianth not as above; seeds horizontal. (34)
+ Perianth deeply 5-lobed; lobes membranous in flower and dorsally winged in fruit; seeds vertical. 35 Noaea
34 (33) Fruiting perianth not forming an undivided circular wing; annuals or perennial; fleshy or not. (33)
+ Fruiting perianth lobes united, forming a regular, circular wing; a very fleshy sturdy annual. 22 Bienertia
35 Fruiting perianth thickened and strongly indurated below the wings. 24 Halothamnus
+ Fruiting perianth not or scarcely thickened and indurated. 23 Salsola
36 (27) Hairs clearly present on at least on some part of the plant. (37)
+ Plants entirely glabrous, or with a mealy indumentum or with some scabrid papillae. (39)
37 (36) Annual or perennial herbs, leaves not basally clustered; hairs barbellate or not; perianth segments and stamens usually 5. (38)
+ Dwarf shrubs with very dense clusters of basal linear, rigid leaves; hairs barbellate; perianth segments 4; stamens 4. 10 Camphorosma
38 (37) Perianth segments inconspicuous, scarious, membranous; fruits horizontal or erect. 3 Chenopodium
+ Perianth showy with rosy-white petaloid lobes; fruits erect, strongly flattened. 16 Anthochlamys
39 (36) Plants with a mealy indumentum or scabrid papillae. (40)
+ Plants glabrous, rarely with few scattered hairs. (44)
40 (39) Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate, basally not scarious, indumentum a mealy bloom. (41)
+ Leaves opposite, sessile with a basal scarious margin; indumentum scabrid-papillose. 26 Girgensohnia
41 (40) Plants monoecious. (43)
+ Plants with both hermaphrodite flowers and some female ones. (42)
42 (41) Flowers in panicles or arranged cymosely forming clusters (glomerules). 3 Chenopodium
+ Flowers solitary or sessile in upper leaf axils. 35 Noaea
43 (41) Several female flowers borne at the base of a foliaceous bract. 9 Microgynoecium
+ Female flowers borne in axils of a foliaceous bract in a cup formed by two connate bracts. 5 Atriplex
44 (39) Leaves terete, sessile. (45)
+ Leaves with a ± broad flat lamina, petiolate. (47)
45 (44) Flowers solitary or in leaf axils. (46)
+ Flowers grouped in 3s, immersed in fleshy spikes; perianth segments 3, inconspicuous. 17 Halopeplis
46 (45) Flowers with two leaf-like bracts. 35 Noaea
+ Flowers with two small bracteoles. 21 Suaeda
47 (44) Sterile branches not spiny; annuals or perennials, leaves with entire-dentate margin or lobed. (48)
+ Ends of sterile branches somewhat spiny; annuals, with coarsely toothed leaves. 1 Acroglochin
48 (47) Leaves entire-sinuately lobed; perianth segments and bracteoles coalescing and hardening in fruit. (49)
+ Leaves dentate, often hastate; flowers in dense clusters, often berry-like; perianth segments not hardening in fruit. 3 Chenopodium
49 (48) Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious); leaves mostly lobed. 4 Spinacia
+ Flowers hermaphrodite; leaves entire, sometimes with a wavy margin. 2 Beta
© 2018 Missouri Botanical Garden - 4344 Shaw Boulevard - Saint Louis, Missouri 63110