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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/15/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 3/15/2013)
Family VIOLACEAE
Contributor ANDRE ROBYNS
Description Herbs, annual or perennial, or shrubs, sometimes scandent, infrequently small trees. Leaves alternate, opposite or apparently opposite, usually stipulate, the blade simple, entire-margined to dentate, rarely ? dissected. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, spicate, racemose or paniculate, sometimes cymose, or flowers solitary or few in the axils. Flowers hermaphroditic, rarely male & female or polygamous, actinomorphic or zygo- morphic; pedicels usually articulate, bracteolate, the bracteoles mostly persistent; calyx quincuncial, the sepals 5, usually distinct, equal or not, usually persistent; corolla usually imbricate, the petals 5, distinct, equal to very unequal, the anterior petal often larger than the others and calcarate, saccate or gibbous at the base, deciduous or not; stamens 5, alternipetalous, similar or not, the filaments free or more or less connate, the 2 anterior filaments in zygomorphic flowers with dorsal appendages which project into the spur, the anthers free or connivent or connate, introrse, 2-thecate, usually longitudinally dehiscent, the connectives often dilated into mem- branous appendages; pollen usually 3-colporate; gynoecium (2) 3 (4-5)-carpellate, syncarpous; ovary superior, 1-locular, with (2) 3 (4-5) parietal placentae each bearing 1-oo anatropous ovules; style simple, terminal, sometimes geniculate below, often clavate above, the style apex variously shaped, the stigma usually simple. Fruit a loculicidal capsule usually with 3 elastic, dorsally carinate valves, rarely baccate or nut-like; seeds often carunculate, usually with copious endosperm.
Habit Herbs shrubs
Distribution A family of 16-18 genera and 850 species distributed all over the world, but particularly well developed in tropical regions; six genera at present reported from Panama.
Note The family has no economic significance, except for the predominantly temper- ate genus Viola L. of which several species are of ornamental value.
Reference Melchior, H., Violaceae in Engl. & PrantI, Nat. Pflanzenfam. ed. 2, 21: 329- 377, 1925.
Key a. Flowers actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic; anterior petal not saccate or calcarate; stamens similar or almost so. b. Flowers actinomorphic; petals equal or almost so. c. Fruit capsular ............ .......................... 1. Rinorea cc. Fruit baccate ........... .......................... 2. Gloeosperm um bb. Flowers slightly zygomorphic; anterior petal ca twice as broad as the others .-.-.... 3. Amphirrhox aa. Flowers markedly zygomorphic; anterior petal saccate or calcarate; 2 anterior stamens with the filaments bearing dorsal, nectariferous appendages. d. Anterior petal unguiculate, the claw gibbous-saccate or shortly calcar- ate ................... -........... 4. Hybanthus dd. Anterior petal calcarate. e. Sepals without basal auricles ............................. . 5. Corynostylis ee. Sepals basally auricled ....................... . 6. Viola
 
 
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