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Published In: Genera Plantarum 317–318. 1789. (4 Aug 1789) (Gen. Pl.) Name publication detailView in BotanicusView in Biodiversity Heritage Library

Project Name Data (Last Modified On 6/2/2011)
Acceptance : Accepted
Project Data     (Last Modified On 6/3/2011)
Contributor Text: Peter C. Hoch and Peter H. Raven
General/Distribution: A family of 17 genera and about 650 species, worldwide but best represented in western North America. Represented in Pakistan by four genera, of which only Oenothera is not native.
Comment/Acknowledgements: [Treatment of Circaea by David E. Boufford, Section of Botany, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.; of Oenothera by Warren L. Wagner, Washington University and Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.; of Epilobium and Ludwigia by Peter Hoch].


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Perennial or annual herbs (in Pakistan), shrubs or rarely trees. Leaves simple, opposite or spirally arranged, entire or toothed; stipules present or absent. Flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, hermaphrodite (in Pakistan), solitary or in axils of leaves or in racemes, 2-7-merous. Floral tube present or absent. Sepals 2-7, valvate. Petals 0-7, free. Stamens as many as or twice as many as the sepals. Anthers versatile or basifixed; pollen shed singly or in tetrads, almost always united by viscin threads. Ovary inferior, 1-5-locular; style single; stigma lobed, clavate or globose. Fruit a capsule, berry or nut, loculicidal or indehiscent. Seeds anatropous, lacking endosperm, smooth or variously papillose, with a coma or wings or lacking both.

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1.Sepals 2; fruit bristly with hooked hairs, 1-2-seeded.
1.Sepals 4-5; fruit not bristly with hooked hairs, many-seeded.
2.Sepals persistent after anthesis; petals yellow; floral tube absent.
2.Sepals deciduous after anthesis; petals pink, white or yellow; floral tube present, or if absent then petals pink.
3.Seeds with a chalazal coma; capsules 1-2.5 mm thick, not conspicuously ribbed; floral tube 0-3 mm long.
3.Seeds without chalazal coma; capsules 3-15 mm thick, conspicuously ribbed; floral tube 4-130 mm long.
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