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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 3/18/2013)

Flora Data (Last Modified On 3/18/2013)
Description Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines; stems sometimes succulent, sometimes with milky or colored sap. Leaves alternate or, less commonly, opposite (rarely whorled), petiolate; stipules free or connate, often caducous, obsolete or absent; blades pinnately or palmately veined, compound or simple and lobed or not. Inflorescences cymose, racemose, or spicate, sometimes aggregated in pseudanthia. Flowers unisexual, mostly actinomorphic; calyx in most taxa of 3-6 valvate or quincuncially imbricate lobes or segments, rarely absent; corolla of 3-6 petals, or often reduced or absent; glandular disc of receptacular or staminodal origin often present; stamens (1-)3-20(-400 or more), the filaments free or united, the anthers mostly 2-locular and dehiscing longitudinally; pollen grains most often 3-colporate but sometimes inaperturate or polytreme; gynoecium of (1-)3 or 4(-20) united carpels, the ovary superior, with axile placentation, the ovules 1 or 2 per locule, anatropous or hemitropous, epitropous, inserted beneath an obturator, crassinucel- late, often with a nucellar beak. Fruits typically capsular, of 3 elastically dehiscing cocci separating from a persistent columella but sometimes drupaceous (rarely bac- cate or samaroid); seeds 1 or 2 per locule, or (by abortion) solitary in the fruits, the seed coats crustaceous to bony, the endosperm usually copious (rarely absent), the embryo extending most of the length of the seed, the cotyledons usually broader than the radicle, plane or rarely folded.
Habit Trees, shrubs, herbs, or vines
Note A highly diversified family of at least 7,000 species in more than 300 genera. Despite the relative floristic poverty of Panama, it has an impressive array of 36 genera with native species and a few additional genera, such as Pausandra, may still be discovered during the course of further exploration. A considerable variety of exotic euphorbiaceous genera are presently cultivated in Panama, especially in the Canal Zone, and a few of these may eventually escape to a certain extent as components of the native vegetation. Exotic genera in the Phyllanthoideae include Antidesma and Breynia, while the Euphorbioideae are represented by Aleurites, Codiaeum, and Hevea.
Reference Lanjouw, J., The Euphorbiaceae of Surinam. 1-195, pis. 1-5, Amsterdam, 1931. Lourteig, A., & C. A. O'Donell, Euphorbiaceae, in Descoles, H. R., Genera et Species Plantarum Argentinarium 1: 143-317, t. 63-138, 1943. Euphorbiaceae Argentinae. Phyllantheae, Dalechampieae, Cluytieae, Manihoteae. Lilloa 9: 77-173, t. 1-18, 1943. Mueller, J., Euphorbiaceae, in DeCandolle, Prodromus 15(2): 1-1286, 1866 (Euphorbieae by E. Boissier). . Euphorbiaceae, in Martius, Fl. Brasil. 11(2): 1-292, t. 1-42, 1873; 293-750, t. 43-104, 1874. Punt, W., Pollen morphology of the Euphorbiaceae with special reference to taxonomy. Wentia 7: 1-116, 1962. Webster, G. L., The genera of Euphorbiaceae in the southeastern United States. Jour. Arnold Arb. 48: 303-430, 1967.
Key a. Ovules paired in each cell of the ovary; sap never milky; leaves entire, un- lobed, not glandular. [Subfam. Phyllanthoideae] b. Petals present; stipules intra-petiolar; fruits massive, 2 cm long - 1. Amanoa bb. Petals absent; stipules not intra-petiolar; fruits smaller, rarely exceeding 1 cm long. c. Indumentum of simple or branched hairs; fruits of 3 or more carpels, not indehiscent and 1-seeded; a flower without pistillode. d. Fruit of 4 or 5 (rarely 3) carpels, irregularly dehiscent; seeds with bluish fleshy outer coat and bony inner coat; 8 flower with an- nular disc and 4 free stamens; dioecious shrub or tree - 2. Margaritaria dd. Fruit of 3 (rarely 2 or 4) carpels, dehiscent in most species; seeds neither fleshy nor bony; a flower with stamens 3 or else disc ab- sent (in local taxa); monoecious or dioecious, habit various .3. Phyllanthus cc. Indumentum lepidote; fruit of 2 carpels, drupaceous, 1-seeded; 8 flower with pistillode .............. 4. Hyeronima aa. Ovules solitary in each cell of the ovary; sap often colored or milky; leaves often lobed and/or with petiolar glands or marginal teeth. [Subfam. Euphor- bioideae]. e. Flowers not aggregated into pseudanthia. f. Stamens fasciculate-ramified, anthers 00; leaves peltate, palmately lobed; inflorescences terminal, paniculate; 9 flowers distal . 23. Ricinus ff. Stamens not highly branched, anthers equal in number to stamens; leaves not peltate and palmately lobed; inflorescences terminal or lateral, not paniculate, if hemaphroditic, with female flowers proximal (lower). g. Inflorescences of small clusters of stalked globose involucres each enclosing 3-10 sessile flowers (involucres almost lacking in one species but form of inflorescences otherwise the same) ... 26. Pera gg. Inflorescences not of pedunculate heads of sessile flowers. h. Petals present at least in 8 flowers, often conspicuous in both 8 and 9. i. Anthers ? erect in bud, not distinctly inflexed; indumentum not lepidote or of branched hairs (except trichomes malpighiaceous in Argythamnia). j. Stamens not over 10. k. Inflorescence dichasial; seeds carunculate; pollen grains verrucose; leaves palmately veined or lobed .......................... 5. Jatropha kk. Inflorescence racemiform; seeds ecarunculate; pollen grains not verrucose, 3-6-colporate; leaves pinnately veined. 1. Leaves finely serrate, lateral veins distinctly parallel; trichomes simple or glandular (not malpighiaceous); pistillode present in 8 flower ................................................................. 10. Caperonia 11. Leaves entire, lateral veins not distinctly parallel; trichomes malpighiaceous (at least in part); pistillede absent in 8 flower ........ 11. Argythamnia jj. Stamens many (50 or m ore) .................................... 6. Garcia ii. Anthers distinctly inflexed in bud; indumentum (at least in part) of lepidote or branched hairs ------------------------------9. Croton hh. Petals reduced or absent in both g and 9 flowers. m. Calyx distinctly petaloid; inflorescences dichasial. n. Stinging hairs absent; g flowers usually yellowish or greenish to purplish, stamens free, the disc intrastaminal -.. 7. Manihot nn. Stinging hairs present (sometimes very sparse); 8 flowers whitish, stamens connate, disc extrastaminal -8. Cnidoscolus mm. Calyx not petaloid; inflorescences not obviously dichasial. o. Styles connate, columnar, 2.5-5 cm long terminating in a fleshy disc 2-3 cm wide; a flowers aggregated into a pedunculate fleshy cone; carpels more than 5 -----------------32. Hura oo. Styles usually much shorter than 2.5 cm, if long-columnar then not ending in a broad disc; a flowers not aggregated into a fleshy cone; carpels usually less than 5, if more the fruit pome-like. p. Floral bracts not with conspicuous paired basal glands; g calyx- lobes valvate (imbricate in Omphalea). q. Not twining with stinging hairs; a flowers with 3 or more stamens (often 2 in Omphalea). r. Carpels 2; styles elongated, free,+ entire and unlobed; stamens usually 8 .---------------------------------------15. Alchornea rr. Carpels 3 or 4, styles variously modified, stamens few or many, not consistently 8. s. Shrubs or trees, not lianas; styles free or at least not united for most of their length into a column. t. Anthers not vermiform; female bracts not strikingly larger or different from the male; inflorescences racemose or thysoid, not definitely spicate. u. Stamens over 10. v. Stamens over 50, female pedicel slender, 10-15 mm long styles bifid ----------------------------------14. Cleidion vv. Stamens not over 35. w. Stamens 24-35, anthers with a minute apical tuft of of stinging hairs; styles connate into a column, the ends undivided, papillose - 19. Acidoton ww. Stamens less than 20, anthers without an apical tuft of stinging hairs, styles free or nearly so. x. Styles deeply laciniate; 9 pedicels becoming 20-70 mm long; leaves without basal foliar glands ------12 . Adelia xx. Styles 1 or 2 times bifid; 9 flowers sessile or sub- sossile; leaves with conspicuous foliar glands near the base ............................................ 13. Bernardia uu. Stamens less than 10. y. Disc absent in 8 flower; stamens 3, anthers peltate, 4-locellate ... 17. Tetrorchidium yy. Disc of 8 flower massive, central stamens 4-8, not peltate. z. Pistillode present in 8 flower; leaves triplinerved; fruits small, seeds compressed and with fleshy coat, less than 3 mm long .. 16. Alchorneopsis zz. Pistillode absent in 8 flower; leaves pinnately veined; fruits massive, seeds spheroidal, 15 mm long or more, seed coat not fleshy .... . 18. Caryodendron tt. Anthers vermiform; 9 bracts much larger than 8 (or if not, ovary dense-verrucose); flowers spicate ... 24. Acalypha ss. Lianas; styles connate for most of their length into a column. A. Stamens 19-24; 8 calyx-lobes valvate; carpels 4, carinate; seeds lenticular, 15-17 mm broad; leaves acuminate..... . 21. Plukenetia AA. Stamens 2(-3); a calyx-lobes imbricate; carpels 3, sericeous; seeds compressed, 39-40 mm broad; leaves obtuse ---- 22. Omphalea qq. Twining vine armed with stinging hairs; a flowers with 2 stamens --- 20. Tragia pp. Floral bracts with conspicuous basal glands; g calyx-lobes imbricate or open. B. Seed carunculate, dry; fruit capsular; petiole eglandular but sometimes with cupular glands at base of leaf blade. C. Inflorescence spicate. D. Columella with a persistent hardened gynobase; g calyx lobes and stamens 2 ---------------------- 29. Stillingia DD. Columella without hardened gynobase after dehiscence of fruit; 8 calyx-lobes and stamens usually 3 ------------- 27. Sebastiania CC. Inflorescence racemiform or paniculate -------------- 28. Mabea BB. Seed ecarunculate, either seed coat or capsule wall fleshy; petiole usually biglandular, the stipitate glands a little below the junction with the blade. E. Fruit thin walled, capsular; seed coat fleshy; ovary 3 locular -- 30. Sapium EE. Fruit fleshy, indehiscent; seed coat dry; ovary 6-10 locular --31. Hippomane ee. Flowers aggregated into pseudanthia (see also 26. Pera). F. Pseudanthium bilabiate, the flowers subtended by 2 large divergent pal- mately veined bracts; 9 flowers 3 at lower node, g 6-12; styles connate to the stigmas; fruiting calyx covered with irritating hairs; vines --.25. Dalechampia FF. Pseudanthium radially symmetrical, or if bilaterally symmetrical then not subtended by divergent bracts; 9 flower solitary, terminal, 8 in 5 groups around base of 9; styles free or connate; calyx obsolete; herbs, shrubs, or trees, never twining. G. Cyathium spurred, strongly zygomorphic; glands hidden within spur .. .. .. 36. Pedilanthus GG. Cyathium not spurred, overall appearance + actinomorphic; glands on rim of cyathium. H. Glands of cyathia solitary (rarely up to 5 on first few formed), exappendiculate --------34. Poinsettia HH. Glands of cyathia usually 4 or 5, exappendiculate or with petaloid appendages. I. Leaves all opposite, base inequilateral, veins chlorenchyma- sheathed, stipulate; main axis aborting within 2 nodes of cotyledons ....... 35. Chamaesyue II. Leaves alternate, opposite or whorled, if opposite base ? equilateral, veins not chlorenchyma-sheathed, stipules often obsolete; main axis persisting or aborting only after an ob- vious stem has been produced ....... 33. Euphorbia
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