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Project Name Data (Last Modified On 10/3/2013)
 

Flora Data (Last Modified On 10/3/2013)
Family MALPIGHIACEAE
Contributor JOSE CUATRECASAS AND THOMAS B. CROAT
Description Trees, shrubs, or scandent lianas, seldom subshrubs. Leaves simple, opposite or subopposite; petiole often glandular; blades entire, rarely lobate or irregularly toothed when juvenile, often with abaxial or marginal glands; venation pinnate; stipules present; T-shaped trichomes frequently present. Flowers bisexual, acti- nomorphic or usually obliquously zygomorphic principally by modification of 1 petal, and diversification of stamens and styles; in many-flowered, axillary pan- icles, pseudo-racemes, or umbels; pedicels sessile or articulate to bibracteolate peduncles whcch are borne in the axils of bracts; bracts and bracteoles conspic- uous or small, sometimes glandular; calyx of 5 sepals, more or less united at the base, the lobes quincuncial, rarely valvate in bud; often with a pair of conspicuous glands; petals 5, showy, free, often yellow, but also white, pink, red and violet, clawed, fringed or toothed, alternate to the sepals; the interior petal often reduced and of another color, sometimes all equal, the claw articulated with the limb; stamens (8-)10, equal or unequal, sometimes with the 5 epipetalous stamens reduced, sometimes with 4 stamens opposite the 4 glandular sepals reduced to staminodes, sometimes with the 3 stamens opposite the 3 carpels much enlarged (Stigmaphyllon, Banisteriopsis spp.), the filaments more or less connate at the base, rarely free, usually glabrous, the anthers 2-celled, basifixed or dorsifixed, introrse, dehiscing longitudinally, often with a thickened connective, sometimes glandular, sometimes appendaged; ovary superior, mostly 3-locular, (2-)3(-4)- carpellate; placentation axile, the ovules solitary in each locule, pendulous, semi- anatropous; style (2-)3 free, rarely connate, distally terete, triangularly dilated, spatulate or sometimes appendages forming a hood over the stamens, rarely with only 1 style developed, the stigmatic tissue uniform at the tip of the styles or on their adaxial angle. Fruit usually a schizocarp of 3 samaras, sometimes a drupe with 1-3 pyrenes (Bunchosia, Byrsonima, Malpighia), a 2- or 3-locular dehiscent capsule (Galphimia) or separable indehiscent cocci (Pterandra); seeds ovoid, endosperm lacking, cotyledons flat, slightly curved, folded, uncinate or spirally rolled (Byrsonima, Pterandra).
Habit Trees, shrubs, or scandent lianas, seldom subshrubs.
Note The family consists of about 60 genera with 850 species, mostly in the Amer- ican tropics. Members range from Texas and the Bahamas to northern Argentina and occur in habitats ranging from wet rain forests to arid areas. Some malpighiaceous trees produce fine-grain wood which is used locally for making furniture and in construction. The bark and wood of some species are rich in tannins and are used in small factories as dyeing or tanning material. Many species produce drupaceous fleshy fruits or acidulous juicy berries which are directly eaten or prepared into jellies or preserves. The juice of Malpighia emar- ginata Sesse & Moc. is rich is ascorbic acid (vitamin C). Some species of Ban- isteriopsis contain alkaloids, like harmaline (=yageine, banisterine, telepathine) with dramatic hallucinogenic effects. "Ayahuasca," "caapi," "yage," and "natem" are the most general common names for B. caapi (Spruce) Morton in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, etc. where the natives have been using it for centuries in ceremonial celebration. Other species of Banisteriopsis and other genera (e.g. Tetrapteris) also have harmaline and several other chemical derivatives with a diversified spectrum of narcotic effects, according to the recent progress of re- search in this field (e.g. Schultes & Hofmann, 1973). The generally zygomorphic flowers of the Malpighiaceae are probably bee pollinated (Croat, 1978) and the fruits are mostly wind-dispersed. A few species, such as species of Spachea, Bunchosia and Malpighia are endozoochorous per- haps at least in part by bats (Croat, 1978).
Common Ayahuasca caapi
Common yage natem
Reference Adams, C. D. 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies. Mona, Jamaica. 848 pp. Anderson, W. R. 1976. A new species of Jubelina (Malpighiaceae) from Central America. Brittonia 28: 410-412. De Candolle, A. P. 1824. Prodr. Syst. Nat. 1: 577-592. Croat, T. B. 1978. Flora of Barro Colorado Island. Stanford University Press. Stanford, California. 943 pp. Cuatrecasas, J. 1958. Prima flora Colombiana. Webbia 13: 565-588. Hutchinson, J. 1967. The Genera of Flowering Plants (Angiospermae). 2. Di- cotyledons. Oxford University Press. London. 659 pp. Johnston, I. M. 1949. The botany of San Jose Island. Sargentia 8: 1-306. Jussieu, A. H. L. de. 1840. Malpighiacearum synopsis, monographiae mox ed- enae prodromus. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. 2. 13: 247-291; 321-338. 1843. Monographie de la famille des Malpighiacees. Arch. Mus. Hist. Nat. 3: 5-151; 255-616. MacBryde, B. 1970. A revision of the Galphimiinae Niedenzu (Malpighiaceae). Ph.D. Dissertation. Washington Univ., St. Louis. 248 pp. Niedenzu, F. 1928. Malpighiaceae in A. Engler, Pflanzenreich IV. 141 (91, 93, 94): 1-870. Schultes, R. E. & A. Hofmann. 1973. The Botany and Chemistry of Halluci- nogens. Charles C. Thomas, Publishers. Springfield, Illinois. 267 pp. Small, J. K. 1910. Malpighiaceae. N. Amer. Fl. 25: 117-171. Standley, P. C. 1928. Flora of the Panama Canal Zone. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 27: 1-416. Triana, J. & J.-E. Planchon. 1862. Malpighiaceae. In Prodromus florae Novo- Granatensis. Ann. Sci. Nat. Bot. Ser. 4. 18: 307-338.
Key a. Fruit a schizocarp splitting into 3 samaras; receptacle pyramidal; usually lianas or climbing shrubs. b. Dorsal wing of the samaras well developed, large, conspicuous; lateral wings short or absent. c. Stamens 10, subequal, fertile; style tips blunt, stigma apical, subapical or at the adaxial angle of the styles, or hooked; samara wing thickened on upper or lower margin. d. Samara wing thick on the upper margin, thin along the lower margin; styles subulate, the stigma capitulate, apical or subapical ...... 1. Banisteriopsis dd. Samara wing thin at the upper margin, thickened at the lower margin; styles usually thicker and unequal, dilated, spathulate-truncate or hooked at apex, the stigma at its adaxial angle ...... 5. Heteropteris cc. Stamens 10, unequal, only 4-6 fertile with thicker anthers; styles unequal, the apex enlarged, triangular-truncate, hooked or with foliaceous appendices, the stigma at the inner angle; samara wing thickened on upper margin, thin on lower margin ...... 13. Stigmaphyllon bb. Dorsal wing of the samara obsolete or much reduced; lateral wing or wings well developed and larger than the dorsal wing. e. Flower bud covered until anthesis by 2 large, cochleariform, opposite, embrac- ing bracteoles. Sepals oblong or spathulate, densely pubescent abaxially, soon reflexed ...... 10. Mezia ee. Flower bud not covered by 2 large bracteoles before anthesis; sepals linear, oblong, ovate or oblong-ovate. f. Sepals linear or oblong with subvalvate estivation, pubescent on both sides, soon reflexed; 4 sepals with one large subbasal gland; bracteoles linear or oblong; samara body with 3 cavities, the median monospermous, 2 lateral empty; the dorsal wing developed ...... 7. Jubelina ff. Sepals ovate or oblong-ovate with quincuncial estivation, usually glabrous within, usually erect, each with 2 dorsal glands or eglandular; samara body unilocular with no lateral empty cavities, the dorsal wing shortly carinate, crested or not developed. g. Lateral samara wing parted into 4 narrower wings disposed like an X, all equal or with the abaxial pair shorter than the upper pair or obsolete ...... 14. Tetrapteris gg. Lateral samara wing continued into a disc encircling the body, part- ed (open) at the adaxial line, or parted both at the adaxial and abaxial points, thus separating a wing to each side. h. Pedicels pedunculate (articulate), the pair of bracteoles at the apex of the floral peduncle. Stipules inserted on the stem close to the base of the petiole ...... 9. Mascagnia hh. Pedicels sessile, the bracteoles at the base. Stipules inserted on the petiole ...... 6. Hiraea aa. Fruit drupaceous, a loculicidal capsule or a smooth 3-coccoid schizocarp; receptacle flat; usually trees or erect shrubs. i. Fruit schizocarp splitting into 3-2 indehiscent, smooth, glabrous or pilose cocci. j. Styles -short, obtuse at apex. Inflorescences long, pseudo-racemiform, terminal; flowers usually 1-2 per branch; ovary glabrous, lacking a gynopodium; pedicels pedunculate; anthers not appendiculate ...... 12. Spachea jj. Styles long, subulate. Inflorescences short, subumbellate or fasciculate, axillary or extraxillary; flowers 3 or more per branch; ovary pubescent, sitting on thick, broad gynopodium; pedicels sessile; anthers with dorsal narrow laminar appendix ...... 11. Pterandra ii. Fruit drupaceous or capsular. k. Fruit a 3-2-locular, loculicidal capsule ...... 4. Galphimia kk. Fruit a drupe or nut, with 3-1 pyrenes. 1. Styles subulate, acute; drupe monopyrenous, 3-locular, 3-seeded; cotyle- dons spirally involute; receptacle hirsute ...... 3. Byrsonima 11. Styles spathulate, obtuse or truncate at apex; drupes (di-)tripyrenous; cotyledons almost flat or shortly hooked at the end; receptacle glabrous. m. Petals pink, red, lilac, or white; bracteoles without a dorsal gland; pyrenes rough, with 3-5 dorsal ribs or crests; cotyledons hooked at apex; styles free; flowers in small axillary corymbs or subumbellate ...... 8. Malpighia mm. Petals yellow; bracteoles with a dorsal gland; pyrenes without crests or ribs; cotyledons straight, plano-convex; styles more or less united or free; flowers in axillary or terminal racemiform inflorescences ...... 2. Bunchosia
 
 
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